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Lower GI Bleeding: Epidemiology and Management

  • Kevin A. GhassemiEmail author
  • Dennis M. Jensen
Large Intestine (B Cash, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Large Intestine

Abstract

Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding from the colon is a common reason for hospitalization and is becoming more common in the elderly. While most cases will cease spontaneously, patients with ongoing bleeding or major stigmata of hemorrhage require urgent diagnosis and intervention to achieve definitive hemostasis. Colonoscopy is the primary modality for establishing a diagnosis, risk stratification, and treating some of the most common causes of colonic bleeding, including diverticular hemorrhage which is the etiology in 30 % of cases. Other interventions, including angiography and surgery, are usually reserved for instances of bleeding that cannot be stabilized or allow for adequate bowel preparation for colonoscopy. We discuss the colonoscopic diagnosis, risk stratification, and definitive treatment of colonic hemorrhage in patients presenting with severe hematochezia.

Keywords

Colonic hemorrhage Colonoscopy Hemostasis Hemoclip Thermal probe Diverticulosis Colitis Vascular ectasia Neoplasm Hemorrhoid Ulcer Angiography 

Notes

Compliance with Ethics Guidelines

Conflict of Interest

Kevin A. Ghassemi and Dennis M. Jensen declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Digestive Diseases, Center for Esophageal DisordersDavid Geffen School of Medicine at UCLALos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Departments of Medicine at UCLA and West Los Angeles VA Medical Centers and CURE Digestive Diseases Research CenterDavid Geffen School of Medicine at UCLALos AngelesUSA

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