The Hypersensitive Esophagus: Pathophysiology, Evaluation, and Treatment Options
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Visceral hypersensitivity plays a key role in the pathogenesis of esophageal functional disorders such as functional heartburn and chest pain of presumed esophageal origin (noncardiac chest pain). About 80% of patients with unexplained noncardiac chest pain exhibit lower esophageal sensory thresholds when compared to controls during esophageal sensory testing (ie, esophageal barostat, impedance planimetry). Such information has led to prescription of peripherally and/or centrally acting therapies for the management of these patients. This review summarizes and highlights recent and significant findings regarding the pathophysiology, evaluation, and treatment of the hypersensitive esophagus, a central factor in functional esophageal disorders.
KeywordsEsophagus Hypersensitivity Functional chest pain Heartburn Balloon distension Impedance planimetry Barostat Nonerosive gastroesophageal reflux disease
I sincerely acknowledge the technical support provided by Mr. Eli de la Cruz Patino and manuscript preparation by Maria Medellin.
Dr. Remes-Troche was supported by grant M0034-FOMIX VERACRUZ 68427 from the National Science and Technology Council (CONACYT). No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance, •• Of major importance
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