Current Gastroenterology Reports

, Volume 9, Issue 1, pp 83–90 | Cite as

Hepatitis C and HIV

Article
  • 27 Downloads

Abstract

HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are global health concerns, and coinfection with these viruses is common due to shared routes of transmission. Mortality rates from AIDS and HIV-associated opportunistic infections have decreased since the institution of highly active antiretroviral therapy, but the incidence of liver-related mortality in coinfected patients has subsequently risen significantly. This increase in progression of liver disease and its subsequent increased mortality have spurred research into the optimization of evaluation and management of the HIV-HCV coinfected patient.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References and Recommended Reading

  1. 1.
    Sherman KE, Rouster SD, Chung RT, Rajicic N: Hepatitis C virus prevalence among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus: a cross-sectional analysis of the US adult AIDS clinical trials group. Clin Infect Dis 2002, 34:831–837.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tedaldi EM, Hullsiek KH, Malvestutto CD, et al.: Prevalence and characteristics of hepatitis C virus coinfection in a human immunodeficiency virus clinical trials group: the Terry Beirn Community Programs for Clinical Research on AIDS. Clin Infect Dis 2003, 36:1313–1317.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sulkowski MS, Thomas DL: Hepatitis C in the HIV-infected person. Ann Intern Med 2003, 138:197–207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Palella FJ Jr, Delaney KM, Moorman AC, et al.: Declining morbidity and mortality among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. HIV Outpatient Study Investigators. N Engl J Med 1998, 338:853–860.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Darby SC, Ewart DW, Giangrande PL, et al.: Mortality from liver cancer and liver disease in haemophilic men and boys in UK given blood products contaminated with hepatitis C. UK Haemophilia Centre Directors’ Organisation. Lancet 1997, 350:1425–1431.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bica I, McGovern B, Dhar R, et al.: Increasing mortality due to end-stage liver disease in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Clin Infect Dis 2001, 32:492–497.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Graham CS, Baden LR, Yu E, et al.: Influence of human immunodeficiency virus infection on the course of hepatitis C virus infection: a meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis 2001, 33:562–569.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Salmon-Ceron D, Lewden C, Morlat D, et al.: Liver disease as a major cause of death among HIV infected patients: role of hepatitis C and B viruses and alcohol. J Hepatol 2005, 42:799–805.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sterling RK, Contos MJ, Sanyal AJ, et al.: The clinical spectrum of hepatitis C virus in HIV coinfection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2003, 32:30–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pol S: Hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus co-infection. Gastroenterol Clin Biol 2001, 25(4 Suppl):B152–B156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Martinot-Peignoux M, Boyer N, Cazals-Hatem D, et al.: Prospective study on anti-hepatitis C virus-positive patients with persistently normal serum alanine transaminase with or without detectable serum hepatitis C virus RNA. Hepatology 2001, 34:1000–1005.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Shiffman ML, Stewart CA, Hofmann CM, et al.: Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus in patients with elevated or persistently normal serum alanine aminotransferase levels: comparison of hepatic histology and response to interferon therapy. J Infect Dis 2000, 182:1595–1601.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sterling RK, Sethi A: The spectrum of viral hepatitis in human immunodeficiency virus infection: focus on HIV-HCV and HIV-HBV coinfections. In New Developments in Liver Cirrhosis Research. Edited by Chen TM. New York: Nova Biomedical; 2005:1–23.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Uberti-Foppa C, De Bona A, Galli L, et al.: Liver fibrosis in HIV-positive patients with hepatitis C virus. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2006, 41:63–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Brau N, Salvatore M, Rios-Bedoya CF, et al.: Slower fibrosis progression in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with successful HIV suppression using antiretroviral therapy. J Hepatol 2006, 44:47–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Verma S, Wang C, Govindarajan S, et al.: Do type and duration of antiretroviral therapy attenuate liver fibrosis in HIV-hepatitis C virus-coinfected patients? CID 2006, 42:262–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Greub G, Ledergerber B, Battegay M, et al.: Clinical progression, survival, and immune recovery during antiretroviral therapy in patients with HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus coinfection: the Swiss HIV Cohort Study. Lancet 2000, 356:1800–1805.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Daar ES, Lynn H, Donfield S, et al.: Hepatitis C virus load is associated with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 disease progression in hemophiliacs. J Infect Dis 2001, 183:589–595.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Anderson KB, Guest JL, Rimland D: Hepatitis C virus coinfection increases mortality in HIV-infected patients in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era: data from the HIV Atlanta VA Cohort Study. Clin Infect Dis 2004, 39:1507–1513.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sulkowski MS, Moore RD, Mehta SH, et al.: Hepatitis C and progression of HIV disease. JAMA 2002, 288:199–206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rockstroh JK, Mocroft A, Soriano V, et al.: Influence of hepatitis C virus infection on HIV-1 disease progression and response to highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Infect Dis 2005, 192:992–1002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Merriman NA, Porter SB, Brensinger CM, et al.: Racial difference in mortality among U.S. veterans with HCV/HIV coinfection. Am J Gastroenterd, 101:760–767.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Miller MF, Haley C, Koziel MJ, Rowley CF: Impact of hepatitis c virus on immune restoration in HIV-infected patients who start highly active antiretroviral therapy: a meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis 2005, 41:713–720.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Braitstein P, Zala C, Yip B, et al.: Immunologic response to antiretroviral therapy in hepatitis C virus-coinfected adults in a population-based HIV/AIDS treatment program. J Infect Dis 2006, 193:259–268.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Thimme R, Spangenberg HC, Blum HE: Hepatitis B or hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Hepatol 2005, 42(Suppl 1):S37–S44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sterling RK: Role of liver biopsy in the evaluation of hepatitis C virus infection in HIV coinfection. Clin Infect Dis 2005, 40(Suppl 5):S270–S275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Yano M, Kumada H, Kage M, et al.: The long-term pathological evolution of chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology 1996, 23:1334–1340.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ghany MG, Kleiner DE, Alter H, et al.: Progression of fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C. Gastroenterology 2003, 124:97–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Myers RP, Benhamou Y, Imbert-Bismut F, et al.: Serum biochemical markers accurately predict liver fibrosis in HIV and hepatitis C virus co-infected patients. AIDS 2003, 17:721–725.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kelleher TB, Mehta SH, Bhaskar R, et al.: Prediction of hepatic fibrosis in HIV/HCV co-infected patients using serum fibrosis markers: the SHASTA index. J Hepatology 2005, 43:78–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sterling RK, Lissen E, Clumeck N, et al.: Development of a simple noninvasive index to predict significant fibrosis in patients with HIV/HCV coinfection. Hepatology 2006, 43:1317–1325.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    de Ledinghen V, Douvin C, Kettaneh A, et al.: Diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis by transient elastography in HIV/Hepatitis C virus coinfected patients. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2006, 41:175–179.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Soriano V, Puoti M, Sulkowski M, et al.: Care of patients with hepatitis C and HIV co-infection. AIDS 2004, 18:1–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Moore DM, Hogg RS, Braitstein P, et al.: Risks of nonaccidental mortality by baseline CD4+ T-cell strata in hepatitis-C-positive and negative individuals initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy. Antivir Ther 2006, 11:125–129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Uberti-Foppa C, De Bona A, Morsica G, et al.: Pretreatment of chronic active hepatitis C in patients coinfected with HIV and hepatitis C virus reduces the hepatotoxicity associated with subsequent antiretroviral therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2003, 33(2):146–152.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Torriani FJ, Rodriguez-Torres M, Rockstroh JK, et al.: Peginterferon Alfa-2a plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C virus infection in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med 2004, 351:438–450.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Chung RT, Andersen J, Volberding P, et al.: Peginterferon Alfa-2a plus ribavirin versus interferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C in HIV-coinfected persons. N Engl J Med 2004, 351:451–459.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Carrat F, Bani-Sadr F, Pol S, et al.: Pegylated interferon alfa-2b vs standard interferon alfa-2b, plus ribavirin, for chronic hepatitis C in HIV-infected patients: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2004, 292:2839–2848.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Laguno M, Murillas J, Blanco JL, et al.: Peginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin compared with interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin for treatment of HIV/HCV co-infected patients. AIDS 2004, 18:F27–F36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Perez-Olmeda, Nunez M, Romero M, et al.: Pegylated IFN-alpha2b plus ribavirin as therapy for chronic hepatitis C in HIV-infected patients. AIDS 2003, 17:1023–1028.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Manns MP, McHutchison JG, Gordon SC, et al.: Peginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin compared with interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin for initial treatment of chronic hepatitis C: a randomised trial. Lancet 2001, 358:958–965.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hadziyannis SJ, Sette H Jr, Morgan TR, et al.: Peginterferon-alpha2a and ribavirin combination therapy in chronic hepatitis C: a randomized study of treatment duration and ribavirin dose. Ann Intern Med 2004, 140:346–355.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Fried MW, Shiffman ML, Reddy KR, et al.: Peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C virus infection. N Engl J Med 2002, 347:975–982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Macias J, Castellano V, Merchante N, et al.: Effect of antiretroviral drugs on liver fibrosis in HIV-infected patients with chronic hepatitis C: harmful impact of nevirapine. AIDS 2004, 18:767–774.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Section of HepatologyVirginia Commonwealth University Medical CenterRichmondUSA

Personalised recommendations