Hyperglycemia During Pregnancy and Long-Term Offspring Outcomes
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Purpose of Review
This review will focus on the long-term outcomes in offspring exposed to in utero hyperglycemia and gestational diabetes (GDM), including obesity, adiposity, glucose metabolism, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and puberty.
There is evidence, mostly from observational studies, that offspring of GDM mothers have increased risk of obesity, increased adiposity, disorders of glucose metabolism (insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes), and hypertension. In contrast, evidence from the two intervention studies of treatment of mild GDM and childhood measures of BMI, adiposity, and glucose tolerance do not demonstrate that GDM treatment significantly reduces adverse childhood metabolic outcomes. Thus, more evidence is needed to understand the impact of maternal GDM on offspring’s adiposity, glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, risk of fatty liver disease, and pubertal onset.
Offspring of GDM mothers may have increased risk for metabolic and cardiovascular complications. Targeting this group for intervention studies to prevent obesity and disorders of glucose metabolism is one potential strategy to prevent adverse metabolic health outcomes.
KeywordsExposure to gestational diabetes mellitus Pregnancy Childhood metabolic disease Long-term offspring outcomes Developmental programming of diabetes Gestational diabetes treatment effect on offspring
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Monica E. Bianco and Jami Josefson declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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