Cognitive Frailty in Older People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: the Central Role of Hypoglycaemia and the Need for Prevention
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Purpose of Review
To highlight the central role of hypoglycaemia in the causation of cognitive frailty and explore ways of recognition and prevention of hypoglycaemia.
Cognitive frailty is an emerging new concept defined as the concomitant presence of physical frailty and cognitive impairment. In older people with diabetes, cognitive frailty is associated with an increased risk of mortality greater than from either physical frailty or cognitive impairment alone. Hypoglycaemia is directly associated with increased risk of cognitive impairment and physical frailty which are the two components of cognitive frailty. The incidence of hypoglycaemia in older people with diabetes is rising and hypoglycaemia-related hospitalisation has overtaken that of hyperglycaemia.
Recognition of hypoglycaemic episodes in old age remains challenging which leads to misdiagnoses and under-reporting. Therefore, hypoglycaemia prevention strategies are needed. Research is still required to investigate whether prevention of hypoglycaemia would lead to a reduction in the incidence of cognitive frailty.
KeywordsCognition Frailty Hypoglycaemia Older people Diabetes mellitus
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
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