Current Diabetes Reports

, 18:131 | Cite as

Inflammation Markers in Type 2 Diabetes and the Metabolic Syndrome in the Pediatric Population

  • Thomas ReinehrEmail author
  • Christian Ludwig Roth
Pediatric Type 2 and Monogenic Diabetes (PS Zeitler and O Pinhas-Hamiel, Section Editors)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Pediatric Type 2 and Monogenic Diabetes


Purpose of Review

Chronic inflammation, adipokines, and hepatokines have been identified as basis of insulin resistance and β cell failure in animal models. We present our current knowledge concerning the potential relationship between these cytokines, inflammation, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the pediatric population.

Recent Findings

Pro-inflammatory cytokines related to insulin resistance and MetS in children are tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, interferon gamma, pigment epithelium-derived factor, chemerin, vaspin, and fetuin A. Anti-inflammatory cytokines associated with insulin resistance and MetS in children are leptin, adiponectin, omentin, fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-21, osteocalcin, and irisin. These anti-inflammatory cytokines are decreased (adiponectin, omentin, and osteocalcin) or increased (leptin, FGF-21, and irisin) in obesity suggesting a resistance state. TNF-α, fetuin A, and FGF-21 are altered in obese children with T2DM suggesting an involvement in β cell failure.


These cytokines, adipokines, and hepatokines may be able to predict development of MetS and T2DM and have a potential therapeutic target ameliorating insulin resistance.


Leptin Omentin Interleukin TNF-alpha Hepatokines Adipokines 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Thomas Reinehr and Christian Ludwig Roth declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition Medicine, Vestische Hospital for Children and Adolescents DattelnUniversity of Witten/HerdeckeDattelnGermany
  2. 2.Center for Integrative Brain ResearchSeattle Children’s Research InstituteSeattleUSA
  3. 3.Division of Endocrinology, Department of PediatricsUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA

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