SGLT2 Inhibitors and Cardiovascular Outcomes: Current Perspectives and Future Potentials
Purpose of Review
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) have been shown to exert benefit on cardiac outcomes. In this review, we provide updates on available clinical data, studies on potential mechanisms for the CV effects, as well as discuss potential clinical implications of these new findings.
Since the publications of the EMPA-REG and CANVAS trials, large multi-national cohort studies have further shown the cardioprotective effects of SGLT2i. Moreover, new studies examining SGLT2i action on sodium-hydrogen exchanger proteins in both the heart and the kidney, on myocardial energetics and impact on inflammation and atherosclerosis continue to shed light on the multitude of pleotropic effects of these agents.
Though more data is needed to substantiate the safety and efficacy, SGLT2i should be considered as a valuable therapy to help reduce CV risk in patients with diabetes. Ultimately, SGLT2i may have utility in preventing progression to diabetes or providing CV protection in patients who do not have diabetes.
KeywordsSGLT2 inhibitor Type 2 diabetes Cardiovascular outcomes
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Xiaoming Jia, Paras B. Mehta, and Mahboob Alam declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Yumei Ye reports grants from AstraZeneca and Boehringer-Ingelheim.
Yochai Birnbaum reports grants from AstraZeneca and Boehringer-Ingelheim.
Mandeep Bajaj reports grants from Amylin, AstraZeneca, Boehringer-Ingelheim, Eli Lilly, Sanofi-Aventis, and Novo Nordisk.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
All reported studies/experiments with human or animal subjects performed by the authors have been previously published and complied with all applicable ethical standards (including the Helsinki declaration and its amendments, institutional/national research committee standards, and international/national/institutional guidelines).
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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