Advertisement

Current Diabetes Reports

, 17:78 | Cite as

Cigarette Smoking, Diabetes, and Diabetes Complications: Call for Urgent Action

  • Ping Zhu
  • Xiong-Fei Pan
  • Liting Sheng
  • Henggui Chen
  • An PanEmail author
Lifestyle Management to Reduce Diabetes/Cardiovascular Risk (B Conway and H Keenan, Section Editors)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Lifestyle Management to Reduce Diabetes/Cardiovascular Risk

Abstract

Purpose of Review

This review aimed to examine the latest evidence linking cigarette smoking and cessation to risk of incident diabetes and its complications.

Recent Findings

Abundant evidence has demonstrated that smoking is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease among diabetic patients, while its relationship with microvascular complications is more limited to diabetic nephropathy and neuropathy in type 1 diabetes. In addition, diabetes risk remains high in the short term after smoking cessation, while it reduces gradually in the long term. Risk of cardiovascular complications also substantially decreases after quitting smoking, but results for microvascular complications are not consistent.

Summary

Smoking is associated with increased risks of incident diabetes in the general population and cardiovascular complications among diabetic patients. Although the short-term post-cessation diabetes risk needs to be acknowledged, this review calls for urgent action to implement population-wide policies and individual pharmaceutical and lifestyle interventions (if evidence accumulated in future) to aid smoking cessation and prevent diabetes and its complications.

Keywords

Diabetes Smoking Cardiovascular disease Smoking cessation Microvascular complication 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Ping Zhu, Xiong-Fei Pan, Liting Sheng, Henggui Chen, and An Pan declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

  1. 1.
    • Ng M, Freeman MK, Fleming TD, Robinson M, Dwyer-Lindgren L, Thomson B, et al. Smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption in 187 countries, 1980–2012. JAMA. 2014;311(2):183–92. The paper shows the changes of smoking prevalence since 1980 and gives an idea of the magnitude of most recent smoking problem around the world.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Oberg M, Jaakkola MS, Woodward A, Peruga A, Prüssustün A. Worldwide burden of disease from exposure to second-hand smoke: a retrospective analysis of data from 192 countries. Lancet. 2011;377(9760):139–46.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lim SS, Vos T, Flaxman AD, Danaei G, Shibuya K, Adairrohani H, et al. A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet. 2012;380(9859):2224–60.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    GBD 2015 Mortality and Causes of Death Collaborators. Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. Lancet. 2016;388(10053):1459–544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    • NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC). Worldwide trends in diabetes since 1980: a pooled analysis of 751 population-based studies with 4.4 million participants. Lancet. 2016;387(10027):1513–30. The paper shows the changes of diabetes prevalence since 1980 and gives an idea of the magnitude of diabetes problem around the world.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    • International Diabetes Federation. IDF Diabetes Atlas Seventh Edition. Brussels, Belgium: International Diabetes Federation. Available from: http://www.diabetesatlas.org/. Accessed on April 26, 2017. Data from the IDF shows the most recent global prevalence of diabetes.
  7. 7.
    •• U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The health consequences of smoking: 50 years of progress. A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2014. Printed with corrections, January 2014. The most comprehensive report on the health consequences of smoking and included a section of the studies on smoking and risk of diabetes.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    •• Pan A, Wang Y, Talaei M, Hu FB, Wu T. Relation of active, passive, and quitting smoking with incident type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2015;3(12):958–67. The most comprehensive systematic review that linked various smoking behaviours (active smoking, passive smoking, and smoking cessation) with risk of type 2 diabetes.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    •• Pan A, Wang Y, Talaei M, Hu FB. Relation of smoking with total mortality and cardiovascular events among patients with diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis and systematic review. Circulation. 2015;132(19):1795–804. The most comprehensive systemtic review that linked various smoking behaviours (active smoking, passive smoking, and smoking cessation) with risk of total mortality and cardiovascular complications among diabetic patients.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Willi C, Bodenmann P, Ghali WA, Faris PD, Cornuz J. Active smoking and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2007;298(22):2654–64.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    • Carlsson S, Andersson T, Araghi M, Galanti R, Lager A, Lundberg M, et al. Smokeless tobacco (snus) is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes: results from five pooled cohorts. J Intern Med. 2017;281(4):398–406. A recent study linking smokeless tobacco (snus) with risk of type 2 diabetes.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Grana R, Benowitz N, Glantz SA. E-cigarettes: a scientific review. Circulation. 2014;129(19):1972–86.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Akter S, Okazaki H, Kuwahara K, Miyamoto T, Murakami T, Shimizu C, et al. Smoking, smoking cessation, and the risk of type 2 diabetes among Japanese adults: Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study. PLoS One. 2015;10(7):e0132166.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Han SJ, Kim HJ, Kim DJ, Lee KW, Cho NH. Incidence and predictors of type 2 diabetes among Koreans: a 12-year follow up of the Korean genome and epidemiology study. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2017;123:173–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Papier K, Jordan S, D'Este C, Bain C, Peungson J, Banwell C, et al. Incidence and risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus in transitional Thailand: results from the Thai cohort study. BMJ Open. 2016;6(12):e014102.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Guariguata L, Linnenkamp U, Beagley J, Whiting DR, Cho NH. Global estimates of the prevalence of hyperglycaemia in pregnancy. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2014;103(2):176–85.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Group HSCR, Metzger BE, Lowe LP, Dyer AR, Trimble ER, Chaovarindr U, et al. Hyperglycemia and adverse pregnancy outcomes. N Engl J Med. 2008;358(19):1991–2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Malcolm J. Through the looking glass: gestational diabetes as a predictor of maternal and offspring long-term health. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2012;28(4):307–11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    England LJ, Levine RJ, Qian C, Soule LM, Schisterman EF, Yu KF, et al. Glucose tolerance and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus in nulliparous women who smoke during pregnancy. Am J Epidemiol. 2004;160(12):1205–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    • Zhang C, Tobias DK, Chavarro JE, Bao W, Wang D, Ley SH, et al. Adherence to healthy lifestyle and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: prospective cohort study. BMJ. 2014;349:g5450. A recent study linking various lifestyle factors, including smoking, with risk of gestational diabetes mellitus.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wendland EM, Pinto ME, Duncan BB, Belizan JM, Schmidt MI. Cigarette smoking and risk of gestational diabetes: a systematic review of observational studies. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2008;8:53.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Collier A, Abraham EC, Armstrong J, Godwin J, Monteath K, Lindsay R. Reported prevalence of gestational diabetes in Scotland: the relationship with obesity, age, socioeconomic status, smoking and macrosomia, and how many are we missing? J Diabetes Investig. 2017;8(2):161–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Behl M, Rao D, Aagaard K, Davidson TL, Levin ED, Slotkin TA, et al. Evaluation of the association between maternal smoking, childhood obesity, and metabolic disorders: a national toxicology program workshop review. Environ Health Perspect. 2013;121(2):170–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    • Jaddoe VW, de Jonge LL, van Dam RM, Willett WC, Harris H, Stampfer MJ, et al. Fetal exposure to parental smoking and the risk of type 2 diabetes in adult women. Diabetes Care. 2014;37(11):2966–73. A study showing increased risk of type 2 diabetes in the offspring associated with maternal smoking during the first trimester.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    • Bao W, Michels KB, Tobias DK, Li S, Chavarro JE, Gaskins AJ, et al. Parental smoking during pregnancy and the risk of gestational diabetes in the daughter. Int J Epidemiol. 2016;45(1):160–9. A first study showing increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus in the daughter associated with maternal heavy smoking during pregnancy.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    • La Merrill MA, Cirillo PM, Krigbaum NY, Cohn BA. The impact of prenatal parental tobacco smoking on risk of diabetes mellitus in middle-aged women. J Dev Orig Health Dis. 2015;6(3):242–9. A study showing increased risk of type 2 diabetes among offspring daughters associated with prenatal maternal smoking.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    American Diabetes Association. 9. Cardiovascular disease and risk management. Diabetes Care. 2017;40(Suppl 1):S75–87.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Soedamah-Muthu SS, Chaturvedi N, Toeller M, Ferriss B, Reboldi P, Michel G, et al. Risk factors for coronary heart disease in type 1 diabetic patients in Europe: the EURODIAB prospective complications study. Diabetes Care. 2004;27(2):530–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    • Diabetes control and complications trial/epidemiology of diabetes interventions and complications research group. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease in type 1 diabetes. Diabetes. 2016;65(5):1370–9. A study that assessed risk factors in the long-term (mean 27 years) follow-up of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    • Wan EY, Fong DY, Fung CS, Yu EY, Chin WY, Chan AK, et al. Prediction of five-year all-cause mortality in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus—a population-based retrospective cohort study. J Diabetes Complicat. 2017;31(6):939–44. A large study that developed gender-specific models for prediction of 5-year mortality risk among Chinese diabetic patients.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    • Barengo NC, Teuschl Y, Moltchanov V, Laatikainen T, Jousilahti P, Tuomilehto J. Coronary heart disease incidence and mortality, and all-cause mortality among diabetic and non-diabetic people according to their smoking behavior in Finland. Tob Induc Dis. 2017;15:12. doi: 10.1186/s12971-017-0113-3. A large study that investigated the association between smoking behavior and risk of coronary heart disease and mortality among diabetic and non-diabetic people.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hadaegh F, Derakhshan A, Mozaffary A, Hasheminia M, Khalili D, Azizi F. Twelve-year cardiovascular and mortality risk in relation to smoking habits in type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic men: Tehran lipid and glucose study. PLoS One. 2016;11(3):e0149780.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Harjutsalo V, Groop PH. Epidemiology and risk factors for diabetic kidney disease. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 2014;21(3):260–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    • Saran R, Robinson B, Abbott KC, Agodoa LY, Ayanian J, Bragg-Gresham J, et al. US renal data system 2016 annual data report epidemiology of kidney disease in the United States. Am J Kidney Dis. 2017;69(1 Suppl):S1–S688. The most comprehensive and updated report on the epidemiology of kidney disease in the United States, as well as its risk factors and consequences.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Matsushita K, Velde MVD, Astor BC, Woodward M, Levey AS, Jong PED, et al. Association of estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in general population cohorts: a collaborative meta-analysis. Lancet. 2010;375(9731):2073–81. A systematic review that summarized the evidence of cigarette smoking and chronic kidney disease in the general population.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Cignarelli M, Lamacchia O, Di PS, Gesualdo L. Cigarette smoking and kidney dysfunction in diabetes mellitus. J Nephrol. 2008;21(2):180–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Christiansen JS. Cigarette smoking and prevalence of microangiopathy in juvenile-onset insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 1978;1(3):146–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Gerber PA, Locher R, Schmid B, Spinas GA, Lehmann R. Smoking is associated with impaired long-term glucose metabolism in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2013;23(2):102–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Orth SR, Schroeder T, Ritz E, Ferrari P. Effects of smoking on renal function in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2005;20(11):2414–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Feodoroff M, Harjutsalo V, Forsblom C, Thorn L, Wadén J, Tolonen N, et al. Smoking and progression of diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes. Acta Diabetol. 2016;53(4):525–33. A study linking smoking and progression of diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Vergouwe Y, Soedamah-Muthu SS, Zgibor J, Chaturvedi N, Forsblom C, Snell-Bergeon JK, et al. Progression to microalbuminuria in type 1 diabetes: development and validation of a prediction rule. Diabetologia. 2010;53(2):254–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    De CS, Lamacchia O, Rauseo A, Viti R, Gesualdo L, Pilotti A, et al. Cigarette smoking is associated with low glomerular filtration rate in male patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2006;29(11):2467–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Chuahirun T, Wesson DE. Cigarette smoking predicts faster progression of type 2 established diabetic nephropathy despite ACE inhibition. Am J Kidney Dis. 2002;39(2):376–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Chuahirun T, Khanna A, Kimball K, Wesson DE. Cigarette smoking and increased urine albumin excretion are interrelated predictors of nephropathy progression in type 2 diabetes. Am J Kidney Dis. 2003;41(1):13–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Phisitkul K, Hegazy K, Chuahirun T, Hudson C, Wesson DE, Simoni J, et al. Continued smoking exacerbates but cessation ameliorates progression of early type 2 diabetic nephropathy. Am J Med Sci. 2008;335(4):284–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Chuahirun T, Hudson C, Seipel T, Khanna A, Simoni J, Harrist RB, et al. Cigarette smoking exacerbates and its cessation ameliorates renal injury in type 2 diabetes. Am J Med Sci. 2004;327(2):57–67.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Tesfaye S, Chaturvedi N, Eaton SE, Ward JD, Manes C, Ionescu-Tirgoviste C, et al. Vascular risk factors and diabetic neuropathy. N Engl J Med. 2005;352(4):341–50. A prospective study that examined modifiable cardiovascular risk factors for diabetic neuropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Gerrits EG, Lutgers HL, Kleefstra N, Graaff R, Groenier KH, Smit AJ, et al. Skin autofluorescence—a tool to identify type 2 diabetic patients at risk for developing microvascular complications. Diabetes Care. 2008;31(3):517–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    •• Clair C, Cohen MJ, Eichler F, Selby KJ, Rigotti NA. The effect of cigarette smoking on diabetic peripheral neuropathy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Gen Intern Med. 2015;30(8):1193–203. A systematic review on the effect of cigarette smoking on diabetic peripheral neuropathy.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Chaturvedi NSJ, Fuller JH. The relationship between smoking and microvascular complications in the EURODIAB IDDM complications study. Diabetes Care. 1995;18(6):785–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Gaedt Thorlund M, Borg Madsen M, Green A, Sjolie AK, Grauslund J. Is smoking a risk factor for proliferative diabetic retinopathy in type 1 diabetes. Ophthalmologica. 2013;230(1):50–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    • Stratton IM, Kohner EM, Aldington SJ, Turner RC, Holman RR, Manley SE, et al. UKPDS 50: risk factors for incidence and progression of retinopathy in type II diabetes over 6 years from diagnosis. Diabetologia. 2001;44(2):156–63. A prospective study that showed smoking was associated with reduced risk of diabetic retinopathy and its progression.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Yun JS, Lim TS, Cha SA, Ahn YB, Song KH, Choi JA, et al. Clinical course and risk factors of diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Korea. Diabetes Metab J. 2016;40(6):482–93.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Yan ZP, Ma JX. Risk factors for diabetic retinopathy in northern Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Int J Ophthalmol. 2016;9(8):1194–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Grauslund J. Long-term mortality and retinopathy in type 1 diabetes. Acta Ophthalmol. 2010;88(Thesis 1):1–14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Moss SE, Klein R, Klein BE. Association of cigarette smoking with diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes Care. 1991;14(2):119–26.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    • Moss SE, Klein R, Klein BE. Cigarette smoking and ten-year progression of diabetic retinopathy. Ophthalmology. 1996;103(9):1438–42. A 10-year follow-up study that did not find association between smoking and diabetic retinopathy.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Pham NM, Nguyen CT, Binns CW, Lee AH. Non-linear association between smoking cessation and incident type 2 diabetes. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2015;3(12):932.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Sung YT, Hsiao CT, Chang IJ, Lin YC, Yueh CY. Smoking cessation carries a short-term rising risk for newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus independently of weight gain: a 6-year retrospective cohort study. J Diabetes Res. 2016;2016:3961756.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Yeh HC, Duncan BB, Schmidt MI, Wang NY, Brancati FL. Smoking, smoking cessation, and risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cohort study. Ann Intern Med. 2010;152(1):10–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Oba S, Noda M, Waki K, Nanri A, Kato M, Takahashi Y, et al. Smoking cessation increases short-term risk of type 2 diabetes irrespective of weight gain: the Japan public health center-based prospective study. PLoS One. 2012;7(2):e17061.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Luo JH, Rossouw J, Tong E, Giovino GA, Lee CC, Chen C, et al. Smoking and diabetes: does the increased risk ever go away? Am J Epidemiol. 2013;178(6):937–45.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    •• Clair C, Rigotti NA, Porneala B, Fox CS, D'Agostino RB, Pencina MJ, et al. Association of smoking cessation and weight change with cardiovascular disease among adults with and without diabetes. JAMA. 2013;309(10):1014–21. A comprehensive analysis to show that smoking cessation was associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease among adults with and without diabetes, independent of weight change.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    •• Luo JH, Rossouw J, Margolis KL. Smoking cessation, weight change, and coronary heart disease among postmenopausal women with and without diabetes. JAMA. 2013;(1):310, 94–6. An analysis to show that smoking cessation was associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease among postmenopausal women with and without diabetes, independent of weight change.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    •• Pirie K, Peto R, Reeves GK, Green J, Beral V. Million women study collaborators. The 21st century hazards of smoking and benefits of stopping: a prospective study of one million women in the UK. Lancet. 2013;381(9861):133–41. A comprehensive analysis to show that smoking cessation was associated with substantially reduced risk of mortality in UK women.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    •• Jha P, Ramasundarahettige C, Landsman V, Rostron B, Thun M, Anderson RN, et al. 21st-century hazards of smoking and benefits of cessation in the United States. N Engl J Med. 2013;368(4):341–50. A comprehensive analysis to show that smoking cessation was associated with substantially reduced risk of mortality in US adults.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    •• Mons U, Müezzinler A, Gellert C, Schöttker B, Abnet CC, Bobak M, et al. Impact of smoking and smoking cessation on cardiovascular events and mortality among older adults: meta-analysis of individual participant data from prospective cohort studies of the CHANCES consortium. BMJ. 2015;350:h1551. A comprehensive meta-analysis of individual participant data to show that smoking cessation was associated with substantially reduced risk of cardiovascular events and mortality among older adults.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    •• Blomster JI, Woodward M, Zoungas S, Hillis GS, Harrap S, Neal B, et al. The harms of smoking and benefits of smoking cessation in women compared with men with type 2 diabetes: an observational analysis of the ADVANCE (Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron modified release Controlled Evaluation) trial. BMJ Open. 2016;6(1):e009668. A comprehensive analysis using the ADVANCE trial data to show that smoking was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease in both men and women with type 2 diabetes, and smoking cessation was associated with reduced risk of all-cause mortality..Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Prospective Studies C, Whitlock G, Lewington S, Sherliker P, Clarke R, Emberson J, et al. Body-mass index and cause-specific mortality in 900,000 adults: collaborative analyses of 57 prospective studies. Lancet. 2009;373(9669):1083–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Tonstad S. Cigarette smoking, smoking cessation, and diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2009;85(1):4–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    •• Lycett D, Nichols L, Ryan R, Farley A, Roalfe A, Mohammed MA, et al. The association between smoking cessation and glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: a THIN database cohort study. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2015;3(6):423–30. A large cohort analysis showed that smoking cessation was associated with deterioration in glycaemic control that lasted for 3 years and was unrelated to weight gain in patients with type 2 diabetes.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Authors/Task Force M, Ryden L, Grant PJ, Anker SD, Berne C, Cosentino F, et al. ESC guidelines on diabetes, pre-diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases developed in collaboration with the EASD: the Task Force on diabetes, pre-diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and developed in collaboration with the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). Eur Heart J. 2013;34(39):3035–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    •• Harris KK, Zopey M, Friedman TC. Metabolic effects of smoking cessation. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2016;12(5):299–308. A comprehensive review paper on the impact of smoking cessation on various metabolic pathways.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Canoy D, Wareham N, Luben R, Welch A, Bingham S, Day N, et al. Cigarette smoking and fat distribution in 21,828 British men and women: a population-based study. Obesity Res. 2005;13(8):1466–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Kahn BB, Flier JS. Obesity and insulin resistance. J Clin Invest. 2000;106(4):473–81.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Bajaj M. Nicotine and insulin resistance: when the smoke clears. Diabetes. 2012;61(12):3078–80.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Chang SA. Smoking and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Metab J. 2012;36(6):399–403.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    van den Oever IA, Raterman HG, Nurmohamed MT, Simsek S. Endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and apoptosis in diabetes mellitus. Mediat Inflamm. 2010;2010:792393.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Xie XT, Liu Q, Wu J, Wakui M. Impact of cigarette smoking in type 2 diabetes development. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2009;30(6):784–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    • Bush T, Lovejoy JC, Deprey M, Carpenter KM. The effect of tobacco cessation on weight gain, obesity, and diabetes risk. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2016;24(9):1834–41. A comprehensive review paper on the impact of smoking cessation on weight gain, obesity, and diabetes risk.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Stadler M, Tomann L, Storka A, Wolzt M, Peric S, Bieglmayer C, et al. Effects of smoking cessation on beta-cell function, insulin sensitivity, body weight, and appetite. Eur J Endocrinol. 2014;170(2):219–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Biedermann L, Zeitz J, Mwinyi J, Sutter-Minder E, Rehman A, Ott SJ, et al. Smoking cessation induces profound changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiota in humans. PLoS One. 2013;8(3):e59260.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Biedermann L, Brulisauer K, Zeitz J, Frei P, Scharl M, Vavricka SR, et al. Smoking cessation alters intestinal microbiota: insights from quantitative investigations on human fecal samples using FISH. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2014;20(9):1496–501.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Tobacco and Genetics Consortium. Genome-wide meta-analyses identify multiple loci associated with smoking behavior. Nat Genet. 2010;42(5):441–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Thorgeirsson TE, Gudbjartsson DF, Surakka I, Vink JM, Amin N, Geller F, et al. Sequence variants at CHRNB3-CHRNA6 and CYP2A6 affect smoking behavior. Nat Genet. 2010;42(5):448–53.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    • Loukola A, Buchwald J, Gupta R, Palviainen T, Hallfors J, Tikkanen E, et al. A genome-wide association study of a biomarker of nicotine metabolism. PLoS Genet. 2015;11(9):e1005498. A genome-wide association study of a biomarker of nicotine metabolism.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Gelernter J, Kranzler HR, Sherva R, Almasy L, Herman AI, Koesterer R, et al. Genome-wide association study of nicotine dependence in American populations: identification of novel risk loci in both African-Americans and European-Americans. Biol Psychiatry. 2015;77(5):493–503.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Xu T, Holzapfel C, Dong X, Bader E, Yu Z, Prehn C, et al. Effects of smoking and smoking cessation on human serum metabolite profile: results from the KORA cohort study. BMC Med. 2013;11:60.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    • Joehanes R, Just AC, Marioni RE, Pilling LC, Reynolds LM, Mandaviya PR, et al. Epigenetic signatures of cigarette smoking. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2016;9(5):436–47. A large genome-wide DNA methylation study of cigarette smoking.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    • Ligthart S, Steenaard RV, Peters MJ, van Meurs JB, Sijbrands EJ, Uitterlinden AG, et al. Tobacco smoking is associated with DNA methylation of diabetes susceptibility genes. Diabetologia. 2016;59(5):998–1006. A large genome-wide DNA methylation study of cigarette smoking that linked to diabetes susceptibility genes, providing potential novel mechanisms underlying the association between smoking and diabetes risk.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    • Jha P, Peto R. Global effects of smoking, of quitting, and of taxing tobacco. N Engl J Med. 2014;370(370):60–8. A review paper that summarized the evidence for public health policies and interventions to reduce cigarette consumption.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Framework Convention Alliance. Latest ratifications of the WHO FCTC 2015. Cited from: http://www.fctc.org/about-fca/tobacco-control-treaty/latest-ratifications/. Accessed on March 26, 2017.
  93. 93.
    Lemmens V, Oenema A, Knut IK, Brug J. Effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions among adults: a systematic review of reviews. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2008;17(6):535–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Stead LF, Lancaster T. Group behaviour therapy programmes for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005;2:CD001007.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Cahill K, Stevens S, Perera R, Lancaster T. Pharmacological interventions for smoking cessation: an overview and network meta-analysis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;5:CD009329.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Farley AC, Hajek P, Lycett D, Aveyard P. Interventions for preventing weight gain after smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;1:CD006219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Stead LF, Koilpillai P, Fanshawe TR, Lancaster T. Combined pharmacotherapy and behavioural interventions for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;3:CD008286.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Ford ES, Mokdad AH, Gregg EW. Trends in cigarette smoking among US adults with diabetes: findings from the behavioral risk factor surveillance system. Prev Med. 2004;39(6):1238–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Gulliford MC, Sedgwick JE, Pearce AJ. Cigarette smoking, health status, socio-economic status and access to health care in diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional survey. BMC Health Serv Res. 2003;3(1):4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Sluik D, Boeing H, Li K, Kaaks R, Johnsen NF, Tjonneland A, et al. Lifestyle factors and mortality risk in individuals with diabetes mellitus: are the associations different from those in individuals without diabetes? Diabetologia. 2014;57(1):63–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    • American Diabetes Association. 4. Lifestyle management. Diabetes Care. 2017;40(Suppl 1):S33–43. Recommendations from the on the lifestyle management in patients with diabetes, and tobacco control is an important component.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    •• Nagrebetsky A, Brettell R, Roberts N, Farmer A. Smoking cessation in adults with diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of data from randomised controlled trials. BMJ Open. 2014;4(3):e004107. A comprehensive meta-analysis of data from randomised controlled trials that summarized evidence on smoking cessation intervention in patients with diabetes.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ping Zhu
    • 1
  • Xiong-Fei Pan
    • 2
  • Liting Sheng
    • 2
  • Henggui Chen
    • 2
  • An Pan
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, West China School of Public HealthSichuan UniversityChengduChina
  2. 2.Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical CollegeHuazhong University of Science and TechnologyWuhanChina

Personalised recommendations