Cigarette Smoking, Diabetes, and Diabetes Complications: Call for Urgent Action
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Purpose of Review
This review aimed to examine the latest evidence linking cigarette smoking and cessation to risk of incident diabetes and its complications.
Abundant evidence has demonstrated that smoking is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease among diabetic patients, while its relationship with microvascular complications is more limited to diabetic nephropathy and neuropathy in type 1 diabetes. In addition, diabetes risk remains high in the short term after smoking cessation, while it reduces gradually in the long term. Risk of cardiovascular complications also substantially decreases after quitting smoking, but results for microvascular complications are not consistent.
Smoking is associated with increased risks of incident diabetes in the general population and cardiovascular complications among diabetic patients. Although the short-term post-cessation diabetes risk needs to be acknowledged, this review calls for urgent action to implement population-wide policies and individual pharmaceutical and lifestyle interventions (if evidence accumulated in future) to aid smoking cessation and prevent diabetes and its complications.
KeywordsDiabetes Smoking Cardiovascular disease Smoking cessation Microvascular complication
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Ping Zhu, Xiong-Fei Pan, Liting Sheng, Henggui Chen, and An Pan declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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