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Current Diabetes Reports

, 16:107 | Cite as

Integrated Cardio-Respiratory Control: Insight in Diabetes

  • Luciano BernardiEmail author
  • Lucio Bianchi
Microvascular Complications—Neuropathy (R Pop-Busui, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Microvascular Complications—Neuropathy

Abstract

Autonomic dysfunction is a frequent and relevant complication of diabetes mellitus, as it is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. In addition, it is today considered as predictive of the most severe diabetic complications, like nephropathy and retinopathy. The classical methods of screening are the cardiovascular reflex tests and were originally interpreted as evidence of nerve damage. A more modern approach, based on the integrated control of cardiovascular and respiratory function, reveals that these abnormalities are to a great extent functional, at least in the early stage of the disease, thus suggesting new potential interventions. Therefore, this review aims to go further investigating how the imbalance of the autonomic nervous system is altered and can be influenced in many chronic pathologies through a global view of cardio-respiratory and metabolic interactions and how the same mechanisms are applicable to diabetes.

Keywords

Chemoreflex Baroreflex Heart rate variability Diabetic neuropathy Hypoxia Autonomic nervous system Cardio-respiratory interactions 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Luciano Bernardi and Lucio Bianchi declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhälsan Research CenterUniversity of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland
  2. 2.Research Program Unit, Diabetes and ObesityUniversity of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland
  3. 3.Torre d’IsolaItaly
  4. 4.Department of Endocrinology-Diabetology-Nutrition, Jean Verdier Hospital, AP-HP, CRNH-IdFParis-Nord UniversityBondyFrance

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