Advertisement

Current Diabetes Reports

, 16:69 | Cite as

International Models of Care that Address the Growing Diabetes Prevalence in Developing Countries

  • Kavita Singh
  • Harish Ranjani
  • Elizabeth Rhodes
  • Mary Beth Weber
Economics and Policy in Diabetes (ES Huang and AA Baig, Section Editors)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Economics and Policy in Diabetes

Abstract

Diabetes care involves a complex interaction between patients, physicians, the health care system, and society. In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where the majority of individuals with diabetes live, there is a shortage of resources and infrastructure for diabetes care. Translation of proven interventions for diabetes prevention and care from experimental settings to the real world is a major challenge, and there is limited evidence from LMICs. To curtail the diabetes burden in LMICs, it is crucial to develop and execute innovative diabetes care models that improve access to care, knowledge, and outcomes. Additionally, adequate training of local health professionals and community engagement can help LMICs become self-sufficient in delivery of diabetes care. In this paper, we reviewed the existing models of diabetes care and prevention in LMICs and provided recommendations to guide the development of a comprehensive and effective future model for diabetes care in LMICs.

Keywords

Diabetes care models Prevention Diabetes management Low- and middle-income countries Task shifting Electronic medical records 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Kavita Singh, Harish Ranjani, Elizabeth Rhodes, and Mary Beth Weber declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

  1. 1.
    International Diabetes F. IDF Diabetes Atlas. 7th ed. Brussels: International Diabetes Federation; 2015.Google Scholar
  2. 2.•
    Zimmet PZ, Magliano DJ, Herman WH, Shaw JE. Diabetes: a 21st century challenge. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2014;2(1):56–64. doi: 10.1016/S2213-8587(13)70112-8. This article highlights the increasing burden of diabetes in LMICs and rest of the world.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ranjani H, Weber MB, Anjana RM, Lakshmi N, Narayan KM, Mohan V. Recruitment challenges in a diabetes prevention trial in a low- and middle-income setting. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2015;110(1):51–9. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2015.07.013.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Seuring T, Archangelidi O, Suhrcke M. The economic costs of type 2 diabetes: a global systematic review. Pharmacoeconomics. 2015;33(8):811–31. doi: 10.1007/s40273-015-0268-9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Norris SL, Zhang X, Avenell A, Gregg E, Bowman B, Schmid CH, et al. Long-term effectiveness of weight-loss interventions in adults with pre-diabetes: a review. Am J Prev Med. 2005;28(1):126–39.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Siegel K, Narayan KM. The Unite for Diabetes campaign: overcoming constraints to find a global policy solution. Global Health. 2008;4:3. doi: 10.1186/1744-8603-4-3.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Knowler WC, Barrett-Connor E, Fowler SE, Hamman RF, Lachin JM, Walker EA, et al. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med. 2002;346(6):393–403.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Knowler WC, Fowler SE, Hamman RF, Christophi CA, Hoffman HJ, Brenneman AT, et al. 10-year follow-up of diabetes incidence and weight loss in the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study. Lancet. 2009;374(9702):1677–86.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kosaka K, Noda M, Kuzuya T. Prevention of type 2 diabetes by lifestyle intervention: a Japanese trial in IGT males. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2005;67(2):152–62. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2004.06.010.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Li G, Zhang P, Wang J, Gregg EW, Yang W, Gong Q, et al. The long-term effect of lifestyle interventions to prevent diabetes in the China Da Qing Diabetes Prevention Study: a 20-year follow-up study. Lancet. 2008;371(9626):1783–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lindstrom J, Ilanne-Parikka P, Peltonen M, Aunola S, Eriksson JG, Hemio K, et al. Sustained reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes by lifestyle intervention: follow-up of the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study. Lancet. 2006;368(9548):1673–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ramachandran A, Snehalatha C, Mary S, Mukesh B, Bhaskar AD, Vijay V. The Indian Diabetes Prevention Programme shows that lifestyle modification and metformin prevent type 2 diabetes in Asian Indian subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IDPP-1). Diabetologia. 2006;49(2):289–97.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Saito T, Watanabe M, Nishida J, Izumi T, Omura M, Takagi T, et al. Lifestyle modification and prevention of type 2 diabetes in overweight Japanese with impaired fasting glucose levels: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med. 2011;171(15):1352–60. doi: 10.1001/archinternmed.2011.275.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tuomilehto J, Lindstrom J, Eriksson JG, Valle TT, Hamalainen H, Ilanne-Parikka P, et al. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. N Engl J Med. 2001;344(18):1343–50. doi: 10.1056/NEJM200105033441801.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pan XR, Li GW, Hu YH, Wang JX, Yang WY, An ZX, et al. Effects of diet and exercise in preventing NIDDM in people with impaired glucose tolerance. The Da Qing IGT and Diabetes Study. Diabetes Care. 1997;20(4):537–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 1993;329(14):977–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33). Lancet. 1998;352(9131):837–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Holman RR, Paul SK, Bethel MA, Matthews DR, Neil HA. 10-year follow-up of intensive glucose control in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2008;359(15):1577–89. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa0806470.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Nathan DM, Cleary PA, Backlund JY, Genuth SM, Lachin JM, Orchard TJ, et al. Intensive diabetes treatment and cardiovascular disease in patients with type 1 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2005;353(25):2643–53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Tight blood pressure control and risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes: UKPDS 38. UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group. Bmj. 1998;317(7160):703–13.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Turnbull F, Neal B, Algert C, Chalmers J, Chapman N, Cutler J, et al. Effects of different blood pressure-lowering regimens on major cardiovascular events in individuals with and without diabetes mellitus: results of prospectively designed overviews of randomized trials. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165(12):1410–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kearney PM, Blackwell L, Collins R, Keech A, Simes J, Peto R, et al. Efficacy of cholesterol-lowering therapy in 18,686 people with diabetes in 14 randomised trials of statins: a meta-analysis. Lancet. 2008;371(9607):117–25. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60104-X.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Srikanth S, Deedwania P. Comprehensive risk reduction of cardiovascular risk factors in the diabetic patient: an integrated approach. Cardiol Clin. 2005;23(2):193–210.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mohiuddin SM, Mooss AN, Hunter CB, Grollmes TL, Cloutier DA, Hilleman DE. Intensive Smoking Cessation Intervention Reduces Mortality in High-Risk Smokers With Cardiovascular Disease. Chest. 2007;131(2):446–52. doi: 10.1378/chest.06-1587.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Standards of medical care in diabetes--2013. Diabetes Care. 2013;36 Suppl 1:S11-66. doi: 10.2337/dc13-S011.
  26. 26.
    The World Health Organization. Prevention of blindness from diabetes mellitus: report of a WHO consultation in Geneva, Switzerland, 9–11 November 2005. Geneva, Switzerland 2005.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gaede P, Lund-Andersen H, Parving HH, Pedersen O. Effect of a multifactorial intervention on mortality in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2008;358(6):580–91. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa0706245.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gaede P, Vedel P, Larsen N, Jensen GV, Parving HH, Pedersen O. Multifactorial intervention and cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2003;348(5):383–93. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa021778.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Anjana RM, Shanthi Rani CS, Deepa M, Pradeepa R, Sudha V, Divya Nair H, et al. Incidence of Diabetes and Prediabetes and Predictors of Progression Among Asian Indians: 10-Year Follow-up of the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES). Diabetes Care. 2015;38(8):1441–8. doi: 10.2337/dc14-2814.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.••
    Shivashankar R, Kirk K, Kim WC, Rouse C, Tandon N, Narayan KM, et al. Quality of diabetes care in low- and middle-income Asian and Middle Eastern countries (1993–2012): 20-year systematic review. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2015;107(2):203–23. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2014.11.004. This systematic review highlights the poor quality of care in the LMIC region and need for urgent action to improve diabetes care.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Suresh S, Deepa R, Pradeepa R, Rema M, Mohan V. Large-scale diabetes awareness and prevention in South India. Diabetes Voice. 2005;50(4):11–4.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bhalla S, Unnikrishnan R, Srivastava R, Tandon N, Mohan V, Prabhakaran D. Innovation in capacity building of primary-care physicians in diabetes management in India: a new slant in medical education. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2016;4(3):200–2. doi: 10.1016/S2213-8587(15)00514-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Shetty P. Public health: India’s diabetes time bomb. Nature. 2012;485(7398):S14–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Venkataraman K, Kannan AT, Mohan V. Challenges in diabetes management with particular reference to India. Int J Diabetes Dev Ctries. 2009;29(3):103–9. doi: 10.4103/0973-3930.54286.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Dagogo-Jack S. Primary prevention of type-2 diabetes in developing countries. J Natl Med Assoc. 2006;98(3):415–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Deepa M, Bhansali A, Anjana RM, Pradeepa R, Joshi SR, Joshi PP, et al. Knowledge and awareness of diabetes in urban and rural India: the Indian Council of Medical Research India Diabetes Study (Phase I): Indian Council of Medical Research India Diabetes 4. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2014;18(3):379–85. doi: 10.4103/2230-8210.131191.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ramachandran A. Specific problems of the diabetic foot in developing countries. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2004;20 Suppl 1:S19–22. doi: 10.1002/dmrr.440.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Abbas ZG, Lutale JK, Bakker K, Baker N, Archibald LK. The ‘Step by Step’ Diabetic Foot Project in Tanzania: a model for improving patient outcomes in less-developed countries. Int Wound J. 2011;8(2):169–75. doi: 10.1111/j.1742-481X.2010.00764.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Gokulakrishnan K, Manokaran K, Pandey GK, Amutha A, Ranjani H, Anjana RM, et al. Relationship of betatrophin with youth onset type 2 diabetes among Asian Indians. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2015;109(1):71–6. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2015.04.028.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Amoah AG, Owusu SK, Acheampong JW, Agyenim-Boateng K, Asare HR, Owusu AA, et al. A national diabetes care and education programme: the Ghana model. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2000;49(2–3):149–57. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Coleman R, Gill G, Wilkinson D. Noncommunicable disease management in resource-poor settings: a primary care model from rural South Africa. Bull World Health Organ. 1998;76(6):633–40.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Katz I, Schneider H, Shezi Z, Mdleleni G, Gerntholtz T, Butler O, et al. Managing type 2 diabetes in Soweto-The South African Chronic Disease Outreach Program experience. Prim Care Diabetes. 2009;3(3):157–64. doi: 10.1016/j.pcd.2009.06.007.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Mamo Y, Seid E, Adams S, Gardiner A, Parry E. A primary healthcare approach to the management of chronic disease in Ethiopia: an example for other countries. Clin Med (Lond). 2007;7(3):228–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Fisher EB, Boothroyd RI, Coufal MM, Baumann LC, Mbanya JC, Rotheram-Borus MJ, et al. Peer support for self-management of diabetes improved outcomes in international settings. Health Aff (Millwood). 2012;31(1):130–9. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2011.0914.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Piette JD, Mendoza-Avelares MO, Milton EC, Lange I, Fajardo R. Access to mobile communication technology and willingness to participate in automated telemedicine calls among chronically ill patients in Honduras. Telemed J E Health. 2010;16(10):1030–41. doi: 10.1089/tmj.2010.0074.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Shah S, Singh K, Ali MK, Mohan V, Kadir MM, Unnikrishnan AG, et al. Improving diabetes care: multi-component cardiovascular disease risk reduction strategies for people with diabetes in South Asia—the CARRS multi-center translation trial. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2012;98(2):285–94. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2012.09.023.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Prathiba V, Rema M. Teleophthalmology: a model for eye care delivery in rural and underserved areas of India. Int J Family Med. 2011;2011:683267. doi: 10.1155/2011/683267.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Mohan V, Deepa M, Pradeepa R, Prathiba V, Datta M, Sethuraman R, et al. Prevention of diabetes in rural India with a telemedicine intervention. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2012;6(6):1355–64.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Allain TJ, van Oosterhout JJ, Douglas GP, Joukes S, Gadabu OJ, Darts C, et al. Applying lessons learnt from the ‘DOTS’ Tuberculosis Model to monitoring and evaluating persons with diabetes mellitus in Blantyre. Malawi Trop Med Int Health. 2011;16(9):1077–84. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2011.02808.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Goldhaber-Fiebert JD, Goldhaber-Fiebert SN, Tristan ML, Nathan DM. Randomized controlled community-based nutrition and exercise intervention improves glycemia and cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetic patients in rural Costa Rica. Diabetes Care. 2003;26(1):24–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Sun J, Wang Y, Chen X, Chen Y, Feng Y, Zhang X, et al. An integrated intervention program to control diabetes in overweight Chinese women and men with type 2 diabetes. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17(3):514–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Ali MK, Echouffo-Tcheugui J, Williamson DF. How effective were lifestyle interventions in real-world settings that were modeled on the diabetes prevention program? Health Aff (Millwood). 2012;31(1):67–75. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2011.1009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Weber MB, Oza-Frank R, Staimez LR, Ali MK, Narayan KM. Type 2 diabetes in Asians: prevalence, risk factors, and effectiveness of behavioral intervention at individual and population levels. Annu Rev Nutr. 2012;32:417–39. doi: 10.1146/annurev-nutr-071811-150630.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Ramachandran A, Snehalatha C, Ram J, Selvam S, Simon M, Nanditha A, et al. Effectiveness of mobile phone messaging in prevention of type 2 diabetes by lifestyle modification in men in India: a prospective, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2013;1(3):191–8. doi: 10.1016/S2213-8587(13)70067-6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Wijesuriya M, Gulliford M, Vasantharajah L, Viberti G, Gnudi L, Karalliedde J. DIABRISK-SL prevention of cardio-metabolic disease with life style modification in young urban Sri Lankan’s—study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2011;12:209. doi: 10.1186/1745-6215-12-209.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Wijesuriya M, Karalliedde J, Gulliford M, Vasantharajah L, Viberti G, Gnudi L. OP49 A low cost primary prevention tool: effects of non pharmacological lifestyle modification in prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus in young urban Sri Lankan - “DIABRISK-SL”. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 2014;106(SI):S25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Weber MB, Ranjani H, Meyers GC, Mohan V, Narayan KM. A model of translational research for diabetes prevention in low and middle-income countries: The Diabetes Community Lifestyle Improvement Program (D-CLIP) trial. Prim Care Diabetes. 2012;6(1):3–9. doi: 10.1016/j.pcd.2011.04.005.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Weber MB, Harish R, Staimez LR, Anjana RM, Ali MK, Narayan KMV, et al. 180-LB Reduction in Diabetes incidence Differs by Prediabetes Type in a Randomized Translational Trial of Prevention. Diabetes. 2015;64(Suppl 1A):LB46.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Oba N, McCaffrey R, Choonhapran P, Chutug P, Rueangram S. Development of a community participation program for diabetes mellitus prevention in a primary care unit, Thailand. Nursing & health sciences. 2011;13(3):352–9. doi: 10.1111/j.1442-2018.2011.00627.x.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Sranacharoenpong K, Hanning RM. Diabetes prevention education program for community health care workers in Thailand. J Community Health. 2012;37(3):610–8. doi: 10.1007/s10900-011-9491-2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Barengo NC, Acosta T, Arrieta A, Ricaurte C, Mayor D, Tuomilehto JO, et al. Screening for people with glucose metabolism disorders within the framework of the DEMOJUAN project (DEMOnstration area for primary prevention of type 2 diabetes, JUAN Mina and Barranquilla, Colombia). Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2013. doi: 10.1002/dmrr.2462.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Mohan V, Anbalagan VP. Expanding role of the Madras Diabetes Research Foundation - Indian Diabetes Risk Score in clinical practice. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2013;17(1):31–6. doi: 10.4103/2230-8210.107825.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Shojania KG, Ranji SR, McDonald KM, Grimshaw JM, Sundaram V, Rushakoff RJ, et al. Effects of quality improvement strategies for type 2 diabetes on glycemic control: a meta-regression analysis. Jama. 2006;296(4):427–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Renders CM, Valk GD, Griffin SJ, Wagner EH, Van Eijk JT, Assendelft WJ. Interventions to improve the management of diabetes in primary care, outpatient, and community settings: a systematic review. Diabetes Care. 2001;24(10):1821–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Renders CM, Valk GD, Franse LV, Schellevis FG, van Eijk JT, van der Wal G. Long-term effectiveness of a quality improvement program for patients with type 2 diabetes in general practice. Diabetes Care. 2001;24(8):1365–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Piette JD, Holtz B, Beard AJ, Blaum C, Greenstone CL, Krein SL, et al. Improving chronic illness care for veterans within the framework of the Patient-Centered Medical Home: experiences from the Ann Arbor Patient-Aligned Care Team Laboratory. Transl Behav Med. 2011;1(4):615–23. doi: 10.1007/s13142-011-0065-8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Dutton GR, Lewis CE. The Look AHEAD Trial: implications for lifestyle intervention in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2015;58(1):69–75. doi: 10.1016/j.pcad.2015.04.002.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Wing RR. Long-term effects of a lifestyle intervention on weight and cardiovascular risk factors in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus: four-year results of the Look AHEAD trial. Arch Intern Med. 2010;170(17):1566–75. doi: 10.1001/archinternmed.2010.334.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Esterson YB, Carey M, Piette JD, Thomas N, Hawkins M. A systematic review of innovative diabetes care models in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2014;25(1):72–93. doi: 10.1353/hpu.2014.0037.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Ross SA. Breaking down patient and physician barriers to optimize glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. Am J Med. 2013;126(9 Suppl 1):S38–48. doi: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2013.06.012.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    van Olmen J, Eggermont N, van Pelt M, Hen H, de Man J, Schellevis F, et al. Patient-centred innovation to ensure access to diabetes care in Cambodia: the case of MoPoTsyo. J Pharm Policy Pract. 2016;9:1. doi: 10.1186/s40545-016-0050-1.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Reisi M, Mostafavi F, Javadzade H, Mahaki B, Tavassoli E, Sharifirad G. Impact of Health Literacy, Self-efficacy, and Outcome Expectations on Adherence to Self-care Behaviors in Iranians with Type 2 Diabetes. Oman Med J. 2016;31(1):52–9. doi: 10.5001/omj.2016.10.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Ramachandran A. Validation of the MDRF-IDRS through Boloor Diabetes Study. J Assoc Physicians India. 2011;59:462. author reply.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Kuzuya T. Early diagnosis, early treatment and the new diagnostic criteria of diabetes mellitus. Br J Nutr. 2000;84 Suppl 2:S177–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    van Dieren S, Beulens JW, van der Schouw YT, Grobbee DE, Neal B. The global burden of diabetes and its complications: an emerging pandemic. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2010;17 Suppl 1:S3–8. doi: 10.1097/01.hjr.0000368191.86614.5a.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Amos AF, McCarty DJ, Zimmet P. The rising global burden of diabetes and its complications: estimates and projections to the year 2010. Diabet Med. 1997;14 Suppl 5:S1–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Girach A, Manner D, Porta M. Diabetic microvascular complications: can patients at risk be identified? A review Int J Clin Pract. 2006;60(11):1471–83. doi: 10.1111/j.1742-1241.2006.01175.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Pradeepa R, Prabu AV, Jebarani S, Subhashini S, Mohan V. Use of a large diabetes electronic medical record system in India: clinical and research applications. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2011;5(3):543–52.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Ali MK, Shah S, Tandon N. Review of electronic decision-support tools for diabetes care: a viable option for low- and middle-income countries? J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2011;5(3):553–70.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Wibowo Y, Parsons R, Sunderland B, Hughes J. Evaluation of community pharmacy-based services for type-2 diabetes in an Indonesian setting: pharmacist survey. Int J Clin Pharm. 2015;37(5):873–82. doi: 10.1007/s11096-015-0135-y.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Hamine S, Gerth-Guyette E, Faulx D, Green BB, Ginsburg AS. Impact of mHealth chronic disease management on treatment adherence and patient outcomes: a systematic review. J Med Internet Res. 2015;17(2), e52. doi: 10.2196/jmir.3951.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kavita Singh
    • 1
    • 2
  • Harish Ranjani
    • 3
  • Elizabeth Rhodes
    • 4
  • Mary Beth Weber
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Endocrinology & MetabolismAll India Institute of Medical SciencesAnsari NagarIndia
  2. 2.Centre for Chronic Disease ControlNew DelhiIndia
  3. 3.Madras Diabetes Research FoundationChennaiIndia
  4. 4.Laney Graduate School, Nutrition and Health SciencesEmory UniversityAtlantaUSA
  5. 5.Hubert Department of Global HealthEmory UniversityAtlantaUSA

Personalised recommendations