Advertisement

The Link Between Adverse Childhood Experiences and Diabetes

  • Lindsay Huffhines
  • Amy Noser
  • Susana R. PattonEmail author
Psychosocial Aspects (S Jaser and KK Hood, Section Editors)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Psychosocial Aspects

Abstract

Exposure to adversity in childhood (adverse childhood experiences [ACEs]) is linked to a number of chronic diseases in adulthood, yet there is limited research examining the impact of ACEs on diabetes. The current review sought to examine the association between ACEs, other trauma exposure or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis, and risk for diabetes. Thirty-eight studies are reviewed. Unlike in other diseases, several studies in diabetes show a threshold-response versus a dose-response relation, while other studies show a relation between greater abuse severity and diabetes risk. There were mixed results for studies examining abuse type and frequency. Chronic or comorbid PTSD was also related to increased diabetes risk among veterans, but in community samples, only trauma exposure predicted diabetes risk. While the research is still limited, diabetes researchers and clinicians should consider screening for ACEs and examine severity and frequency across abuse type as a predictor of both diabetes and poor diabetes outcomes.

Keywords

Adverse childhood experiences Maltreatment PTSD Diabetes 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Lindsay Huffhines, Amy Noser, and Susana R. Patton declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

  1. 1.
    Felitti VJ, Anda RF, Nordenberg D, Williamson DF, Spitz AM, Edwards V, et al. Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults: The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study. Am J Prev Med. 1998;14(4):245–58.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kim‐Spoon J, Cicchetti D, Rogosch FA. A longitudinal study of emotion regulation, emotion lability‐negativity, and internalizing symptomatology in maltreated and nonmaltreated children. Child Dev. 2013;84(2):512–27.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ayoub CC, O’Connor E, Rappolt-Schlichtmann G, Fischer KW, Rogosch FA, Toth SL, et al. Cognitive and emotional differences in young maltreated children: a translational application of dynamic skill theory. Dev Psychopathol. 2006;18(03):679–706.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Miller GE, Chen E, Parker KJ. Psychological stress in childhood and susceptibility to the chronic diseases of aging: moving toward a model of behavioral and biological mechanisms. Psychol Bull. 2011;137(6):959–97.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gary-Webb TL, Suglia SF, Tehranifar P. Social epidemiology of diabetes and associated conditions. Curr Diabetes Rep. 2013;13(6):850–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Turner HA, Ormond R, Hamby SL. Violence, crime, and abuse exposure in a national sample of children and youth: an update. JAMA Pediatr. 2013;167(7):614–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    US Department of Health and Family Services. Child maltreatment. 2012; retrieved from http://www.acf.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/cb/cm2012.pdf.
  8. 8.
    Burke NJ, Hellman JL, Scott BG, Weems CF, Carrion VG. The impact of adverse childhood experiences on an urban pediatric population. Child Abuse Negl. 2011;35(6):408–13.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Barnard KD, Skinner TC, Peveler R. The prevalence of co‐morbid depression in adults with Type 1 diabetes: systematic literature review. Diabet Med. 2006;23(4):445–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lawrence JM, Standiford DA, Loots B, Klingensmith GJ, Williams DE, Ruggiero A, et al. SEARCH for diabetes in youth study. Pediatrics. 2006;117(4):1348–58.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cooper MN, O’Connell SM, Davis EA, Jones TW. A population-based study of risk factors for severe hypoglycaemia in a contemporary cohort of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes. Diabetologia. 2013;56(10):2164–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Valenzuela JM, Seid M, Waitzfelder B, Anderson AM, Beavers DP, Dabelea DM. SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study Group. Prevalence of and disparities in barriers to care experienced by youth with type 1 diabetes. J Pediatr. 2014;164(6):1369–75.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.••
    Bellis MA, Hughes K, Leckenby N, Hardcastle KA, Perkins C, Lowey H. Measuring mortality and the burden of adult disease associated with adverse childhood experiences in England: a national survey. Journal of public health. 2014; 1–10. This paper has an important impact because it demonstrated a threshold effect for ACES and diabetes; the odds of diabetes were higher with at least 4 ACEs, and there was no dose-response relation. Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Almuneef M, Qayad M, Aleissa M, Albuhairan F. Adverse childhood experiences, chronic diseases, and risky health behaviors in Saudi Arabian adults: a pilot study. Child Abuse Negl. 2014;38(11):1787–93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Scott KM, Von Korff M, Angermeyer MC, Benjet C, Bruffaerts R, De Girolamo G, et al. Association of childhood adversities and early-onset mental disorders with adult-onset chronic physical conditions. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2011;68(8):838–44.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.•
    Gilbert LK, Breiding MJ, Merrick MT, Thompson WW, Ford DC, Dhingra SS, et al. Childhood adversity and adult chronic disease: an update from ten states and the District of Columbia. Am J Prev Med. 2015;48(3):345–9. This paper is of importance because it demonstrated that 1–3 or 4–6 ACEs, but not 7–9 ACEs, increased the odds of diabetes, which is contrary to previous ACE studies. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.••
    Husarewycz MN, El-Gabalawy R, Logsetty S, Sareen J. The association between number and type of traumatic life experiences and physical conditions in a nationally representative sample. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2014;36(1):26–32. This paper is important given that it was one of the few that adjusted for numerous covariates, included a large number of adverse events, and found that both adversity type and exposure to cumulative events resulted in greater odds of diabetes. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Karavanaki K, Tsoka E, Liacopoulou M, Karayianni C, Petrou V, Pippidou E, et al. Psychological stress as a factor potentially contributing to the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus. J Endocrinol Investig. 2008;31(5):406–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Roy A, Janal MN, Roy M. Childhood trauma and prevalence of cardiovascular disease in patients with type 1 diabetes. Psychosom Med. 2010;72(8):833–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.•
    Lynch L, Waite R, Davey MP. Adverse childhood experiences and diabetes in adulthood: support for a collaborative approach to primary care. Contemp Fam Ther. 2013;35(4):639–55. This paper was significant for the field given that it was one of the first to establish a relation between ACEs and T2DM. Specifically, with every 1 point increase in ACE score, patients had 11% greater likelihood of T2DM. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Danese A, Tan M. Childhood maltreatment and obesity: systematic review and meta-analysis. Mol Psychiatry. 2014;19(5):544–54.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kendall-Tackett KA, Marshall R. Victimization and diabetes: an exploratory study. Child Abuse Negl. 1999;23(6):593–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Widom CS, Czaja SJ, Bentley T, Johnson MS. A prospective investigation of physical health outcomes in abused and neglected children: new findings from a 30-year follow-up. Am J Public Health. 2012;102(6):1135–44.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Goodwin RD, Weisberg SP. Childhood abuse and diabetes in the community. Diabetes Care. 2002;25(4):801–2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zung A, Blumenfeld O, Shehadeh N, Dally Gottfried O, Tenenbaum Rakover Y, Hershkovitz E, et al. Increase in the incidence of type 1 diabetes in Israeli children following the Second Lebanon War. Pediatr Diabetes. 2012;13(4):326–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Vlajinac H, Šipetić S, Marinković J, Bjekić M, Kocev N, Sajić S. The Belgrade childhood diabetes study–comparison of children with type 1 diabetes with their siblings. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2006;20(3):238–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sipetic S, Vlajinac H, Marinkovi J, Kocev N, Milan B, Ratkov I, et al. Stressful life events and psychological dysfunctions before the onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2007;20(4):527–34.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Goodwin RD, Stein MB. Association between childhood trauma and physical disorders among adults in the United States. Psychol Med. 2004;34(03):509–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Shaw BA, Krause N. Exposure to physical violence during childhood, aging, and health. J Aging Health. 2002;14(4):467–94.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Thomas C, Hyppönen E. Power C Obesity and type 2 diabetes risk in midadult life: the role of childhood adversity. Pediatrics. 2008;121(5):e1240–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Norman SB, Means‐Christensen AJ, Craske MG, Sherbourne CD, Roy‐Byrne PP, Stein MB. Associations between psychological trauma and physical illness in primary care. J Trauma Stress. 2006;19(4):461–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Romans S, Belaise C, Martin J, Morris E, Raffi A. Childhood abuse and later medical disorders in women. Psychother Psychosom. 2002;71(3):141–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Rich-Edwards JW, Spiegelman D, Hibert ENL, Jun HJ, Todd TJ, Kawachi I, et al. Abuse in childhood and adolescence as a predictor of type 2 diabetes in adult women. Am J Prev Med. 2010;39(6):529–36.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.•
    Duncan AE, Auslander WF, Bucholz KK, et al. Relationship between abuse and neglect in childhood and diabetes in adulthood: differential effects by sex, National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Prev Chron Dis. 2015;12(E70):1–14. This paper was important in providing evidence for a threshold effect, given that greater odds of diabetes were only evident for men who were sexually abused three or more times. Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Brewin CR, Andrews B. Valentine JD Meta-analysis of risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder in trauma-exposed adults. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2000;68:748–66.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ozer EJ, Best SR, Lipsey TL, Weiss DS. Predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder and symptoms in adults: a meta-analysis. Psychol Bull. 2003;129:52–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Dedert EA, Calhoun PS, Watkins LL, Sherwood A, Beckham JC. Posttraumatic stress disorder, cardiovascular, and metabolic disease: a review of the evidence. Ann Behav Med. 2010;39:61–78.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Pacella ML, Hruska B, Delahanty DL. The physical health consequences of PTSD and PTSD symptoms: a meta-analytic review. J Anxiety Disord. 2013;27:33–46.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Friedman MJ, McEwen BS. Posttraumatic stress disorder, allostatic load, and medical illness. In: Schnurr PP, Green BL, editors. Trauma and health: physical health consequences of exposure to extreme stress. Washington: American Psychological Association; 2004. p. 157–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Boscarino JA. Posttraumatic stress disorder and physical illness: results from clinical and epidemiologic studies. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004;1032(1):141–53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Boyko EJ, Seelig AD, Jacobson IG, Hooper TI, Smith B, Smith TC. Millennium Cohort Study Team. Sleep Characteristics, Mental Health, and Diabetes Risk A prospective study of US military service members in the Millennium Cohort Study. Diabetes Care. 2013;36(10):3154–61.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    David D, Woodward C, Esquenazi J, Mellman TA. Comparison of comorbid physical illnesses among veterans with PTSD and veterans with alcohol dependence. Psychiatr Serv. 2004;55(1):82–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Trief PM, Ouimette P, Wade M, Shanahan P, Weinstock RS. Post-traumatic stress disorder and diabetes: co-morbidity and outcomes in a male veterans sample. J Behav Med. 2006;29(5):411–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Vaccarino V, Goldberg J, Magruder KM, Forsberg CW, Friedman MJ, Litz BT, et al. Posttraumatic stress disorder and incidence of type-2 diabetes: a prospective twin study. J Psychiatr Res. 2014;56:158–64.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Boyko EJ, Jacobson IG, Smith B, Ryan MA, Hooper TI, Amoroso PJ. Millennium Cohort Study Team. Risk of diabetes in US military service members in relation to combat deployment and mental health. Diabetes Care. 2010;36:3154–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Lukaschek K, Baumert J, Kruse J, Emeny RT, Lacruz ME, Huth C, et al. Relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder and type 2 diabetes in a population-based cross-sectional study with 2970 participants. J Psychosom Res. 2013;74(4):340–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Rao MN, Chau A, Madden E, Inslicht S, Talbot L, Richards A, et al. Hyperinsulinemic response to oral glucose challenge in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2014;49:171–81.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Goodwin RD, Davidson JR. Self-reported diabetes and posttraumatic stress disorder among adults in the community. Prev Med. 2005;40(5):570–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Miller-Archie SA, Jordan HT, Ruff RR, Chamany S, Cone JE, Brackbill RM, et al. Posttraumatic stress disorder and new-onset diabetes among adult survivors of the World Trade Center disaster. Prev Med. 2014;66:34–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Pietrzak RH, Goldstein RB, Southwick SM, Grant BF. Medical comorbidity of full and partial posttraumatic stress disorder in United States adults: results from wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Psychosom Med. 2011;73(8):697–707.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Weisberg RB, Bruce SE, Machan JT, Kessler RC, Culpepper L, Keller MB. Nonpsychiatric illness among primary care patients with trauma histories and posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychiatr Serv. 2014;53(7):848–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Miller SA, Mancuso CA, Boutin-Foster C, Michelen W, McLean-Long C, Foote B. Charlson ME associations between posttraumatic stress disorder and hemoglobin A1 C in low-income minority patients with diabetes. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2011;33:116–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Wagner J, Burke G, Kuoch T, Scully M, Armeli S, Rajan TV. Trauma, healthcare access, and health outcomes among Southeast Asian refugees in Connecticut. J Immigr Minor Health. 2013;15(6):1065–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Roberts AL, Agnew-Blais JC, Spiegelman D, Kubzansky LD, Mason SM, Galea S, et al. Posttraumatic stress disorder and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in a sample of women: a 22-year longitudinal study. JAMA Psychiatry. 2015;72(3):203–10.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Agyemang C, Goosen S, Anujuo K, Ogedegbe G. Relationship between post-traumatic stress disorder and diabetes among 105,180 asylum seekers in the Netherlands. Eur J Public Health. 2011;22(5):658–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Layne CM, Greeson JKP, Ostrowski SA, Kim S, Reading S, Vivrette RL, et al. Cumulative trauma exposure and high risk behavior in adolescence: findings from the National Child Traumatic Stress Network Core Data Set. Psychol Trauma Theory, Res, Pract, Policy. 2014;6:S40–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Jackson Y, Gabrielli J, Fleming K, Tunno AM, Makanui PK. Untangling the relative contribution of maltreatment severity and frequency to type of behavioral outcome in foster youth. Child Abuse Negl. 2014;38(7):1147–59.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Shenk CE, Putnam FW, Rausch JR, Peugh JL, Noll JG. A longitudinal study of several potential mediators of the relationship between child maltreatment and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Dev Psychopathol. 2014;26(01):81–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Collishaw S, Pickles A, Messer J, Rutter M, Shearer C, Maughan B. Resilience to adult psychopathology following childhood maltreatment: evidence from a community sample. Child Abuse Negl. 2007;31(3):211–29.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lindsay Huffhines
    • 1
    • 2
  • Amy Noser
    • 1
    • 2
  • Susana R. Patton
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.University of KansasLawrenceUSA
  2. 2.Center for Children’s Healthy Lifestyles and DevelopmentKansas CityUSA
  3. 3.University of Kansas Medical CenterKansas CityUSA

Personalised recommendations