Current Diabetes Reports

, 16:7 | Cite as

Prevalence of Gestational Diabetes and Risk of Progression to Type 2 Diabetes: a Global Perspective

  • Yeyi Zhu
  • Cuilin ZhangEmail author
Diabetes and Pregnancy (CJ Homko, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Diabetes and Pregnancy


Despite the increasing epidemic of diabetes mellitus affecting populations at different life stages, the global burden of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is not well assessed. Systematically synthesized data on global prevalence estimates of GDM are lacking, particularly among developing countries. The hyperglycemic intrauterine environment as exemplified in pregnancies complicated by GDM might not only reflect but also fuel the epidemic of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We comprehensively reviewed available data in the past decade in an attempt to estimate the contemporary global prevalence of GDM by country and region. We reviewed the risk of progression from GDM to T2DM as well. Synthesized data demonstrate wide variations in both prevalence estimates of GDM and the risk of progression from GDM to T2DM. Direct comparisons of GDM burden across countries or regions are challenging given the great heterogeneity in screening approaches, diagnostic criteria, and underlying population characteristics. In this regard, collaborative efforts to estimate global GDM prevalence would be a large but important leap forward. Such efforts may have substantial public health implications in terms of informing health policy makers and healthcare providers for disease burden and for developing more targeted and effective diabetes prevention and management strategies globally.


Gestational diabetes Prevalence Screening Diagnosis Type 2 diabetes Pregnancy 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Yeyi Zhu and Cuilin Zhang declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

  1. 1.
    Chen L, Magliano DJ, Zimmet PZ. The worldwide epidemiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus—present and future perspectives. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2012;8(4):228–36. doi: 10.1038/nrendo.2011.183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ferrara A. Increasing prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus: a public health perspective. Diabetes Care. 2007;30 Suppl 2:S141–6. doi: 10.2337/dc07-s206.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Anna V, van der Ploeg HP, Cheung NW, Huxley RR, Bauman AE. Sociodemographic correlates of the increasing trend in prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus in a large population of women between 1995 and 2005. Diabetes Care. 2008;31(12):2288–93. doi: 10.2337/dc08-1038.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.•
    Guariguata L, Linnenkamp U, Beagley J, Whiting DR, Cho NH. Global estimates of the prevalence of hyperglycaemia in pregnancy. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2014;103(2):176–85. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2013.11.003. This article estimates the global prevalence of hyperglycemia in pregnancy, including total diabetes in pregnancy (known and previously undiagnosed diabetes) and gestational diabetes, conforming to the new WHO 2013 criteria.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Metzger BE, Lowe LP, Dyer AR, Trimble ER, Chaovarindr U, Coustan DR, et al. Hyperglycemia and adverse pregnancy outcomes. N Engl J Med. 2008;358(19):1991–2002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.••
    Bellamy L, Casas JP, Hingorani AD, Williams D. Type 2 diabetes mellitus after gestational diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2009;373(9677):1773–9. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60731-5. This systematic review and meta-analysis synthesizes the relative risk of developing type 2 diabetes after gestational diabetes among 675,455 women from 20 studies.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Metzger BE, Coustan DR. Summary and recommendations of the Fourth International Workshop-Conference on Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. The Organizing Committee. Diabetes Care. 1998;21 Suppl 2:B161–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Linnenkamp U, Guariguata L, Beagley J, Whiting DR, Cho NH. The IDF Diabetes Atlas methodology for estimating global prevalence of hyperglycaemia in pregnancy. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2014;103(2):186–96. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2013.11.004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    WHO website. Accessed 10 Sept 2015.
  10. 10.
    Obstetrics JSoGa. Committee report on nutrition and metabolism in gyneco-obstetrics: abnormal glucose metabolism in pregnancy, with special reference to the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in pregnancy. Nihon Sanka Fujinka Gakkai Zasshi. 1984;36(10):2055–8.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups Consensus Panel, Metzger BE, Gabbe SG, Persson B, Buchanan TA, Catalano PA, et al. International association of diabetes and pregnancy study groups recommendations on the diagnosis and classification of hyperglycemia in pregnancy. Diabetes Care. 2010;33(3):676–82. doi: 10.2337/dc09-1848.PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Organization WH. Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Part 1: diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1999.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Diabetes in pregnancy: management of diabetes and its complications from preconception to the postnatal period. NICE guidelines [NG3]. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence; 2015.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Canadian Diabetes Association. Canadian diabetes association 2008 clinical practice guidelines for the prevention and management of diabetes in Canada. Can J Diabetes. 2008;32 Suppl 1:S1–201.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ostlund I, Hanson U. Occurrence of gestational diabetes mellitus and the value of different screening indicators for the oral glucose tolerance test. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2003;82(2):103–8. doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0412.2003.00001.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Berger H, Sermer M. Counterpoint: selective screening for gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2009;32(7):1352–4. doi: 10.2337/dc09-0361.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chang AL, Soon R, Kaneshiro B. The prevalence of gestational diabetes among Micronesians in Honolulu. Hawaii Med J. 2010;69(5 Suppl 2):4–6.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dabelea D, Snell-Bergeon JK, Hartsfield CL, Bischoff KJ, Hamman RF, McDuffie RS. Increasing prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) over time and by birth cohort: Kaiser Permanente of Colorado GDM screening program. Diabetes Care. 2005;28(3):579–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ignell C, Claesson R, Anderberg E, Berntorp K. Trends in the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus in southern Sweden, 2003–2012. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2014;93(4):420–4. doi: 10.1111/aogs.12340.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Persson M, Winkvist A, Mogren I. Surprisingly low compliance to local guidelines for risk factor based screening for gestational diabetes mellitus—a population-based study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2009;9:53. doi: 10.1186/1471-2393-9-53.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kuti MA, Abbiyesuku FM, Akinlade KS, Akinosun OM, Adedapo KS, Adeleye JO, et al. Oral glucose tolerance testing outcomes among women at high risk for gestational diabetes mellitus. J Clin Pathol. 2011;64(8):718–21. doi: 10.1136/jcp.2010.087098.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Anzaku AS, Musa J. Prevalence and associated risk factors for gestational diabetes in Jos, north-central, Nigeria. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2013;287(5):859–63. doi: 10.1007/s00404-012-2649-z.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Olagbuji BN, Atiba AS, Olofinbiyi BA, Akintayo AA, Awoleke JO, Ade-Ojo IP, et al. Prevalence of and risk factors for gestational diabetes using 1999, 2013 WHO and IADPSG criteria upon implementation of a universal one-step screening and diagnostic strategy in a sub-Saharan African population. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2015;189:27–32. doi: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2015.02.030.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Olarinoye JK, Ohwovoriole AE, Ajayi GO. Diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus in Nigerian pregnant women—comparison between 75G and 100G oral glucose tolerance tests. West Afr J Med. 2004;23(3):198–201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    O'Sullivan JB, Mahan CM. Criteria for the oral glucose tolerance test in pregnancy. Diabetes. 1964;13:278–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    National Diabetes Data Group. Classification and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and other categories of glucose intolerance. National diabetes data group. Diabetes. 1979;28(12):1039–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Carpenter MW, Coustan DR. Criteria for screening tests for gestational diabetes. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1982;144(7):768–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    American Diabetes Association. Gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes care. 2000;23 Suppl 1:S77–9.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes—2011. Diabetes Care. 2011;34:S11–61. doi: 10.2337/dc11-S011.PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes—2014. Diabetes Care. 2014;37 Suppl 1:S14–80. doi: 10.2337/dc14-S014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    World Health organization. Diabetes mellitus. Report of a WHO study group. Geneva: WHO; 1985.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    World Health Organization/International Diabetes Federation. Definition and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and intermediate hyperglycemia: report of a WHO/IDF consultation. Geneva: WHO; 2006.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Organization WH. Diagnostic criteria and classification of hyperglycaemia first detected in pregnancy. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2013.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ferrara A, Hedderson MM, Quesenberry CP, Selby JV. Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus detected by the national diabetes data group or the carpenter and coustan plasma glucose thresholds. Diabetes Care. 2002;25(9):1625–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Trujillo J, Vigo A, Duncan BB, Falavigna M, Wendland EM, Campos MA, et al. Impact of the international association of diabetes and pregnancy study groups criteria for gestational diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2015;108(2):288–95. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2015.02.007.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bodmer-Roy S, Morin L, Cousineau J, Rey E. Pregnancy outcomes in women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus according to the International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria. Obstet Gynecol. 2012;120(4):746–52. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e31826994ec.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Moradi S, Shafieepour MR, Mortazavi M, Pishgar F. Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus in Rafsanjan: a comparison of different criteria. Med J Islam Repub Iran. 2015;29:209.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Agarwal MM, Dhatt GS, Othman Y. Gestational diabetes: differences between the current international diagnostic criteria and implications of switching to IADPSG. J Diabetes Complicat. 2015;29(4):544–9. doi: 10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2015.03.006.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Duran A, Saenz S, Torrejon MJ, Bordiu E, Del Valle L, Galindo M, et al. Introduction of IADPSG criteria for the screening and diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus results in improved pregnancy outcomes at a lower cost in a large cohort of pregnant women: the St. Carlos Gestational Diabetes Study. Diabetes Care. 2014;37(9):2442–50. doi: 10.2337/dc14-0179.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.•
    Sacks DA, Hadden DR, Maresh M, Deerochanawong C, Dyer AR, Metzger BE, et al. Frequency of gestational diabetes mellitus at collaborating centers based on IADPSG consensus panel-recommended criteria: the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) study. Diabetes Care. 2012;35(3):526–8. doi: 10.2337/dc11-1641. This article is a good example showing the heterogeneity in prevalence estimates of GDM within and across countries even if using the same diagnostic criteria.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Shirazian N, Emdadi R, Mahboubi M, Motevallian A, Fazel-Sarjuei Z, Sedighpour N, et al. Screening for gestational diabetes: usefulness of clinical risk factors. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2009;280(6):933–7. doi: 10.1007/s00404-009-1027-y.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hedderson M, Ehrlich S, Sridhar S, Darbinian J, Moore S, Ferrara A. Racial/ethnic disparities in the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus by BMI. Diabetes Care. 2012;35(7):1492–8. doi: 10.2337/dc11-2267.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kim SY, Saraiva C, Curtis M, Wilson HG, Troyan J, Sharma AJ. Fraction of gestational diabetes mellitus attributable to overweight and obesity by race/ethnicity, California, 2007–2009. Am J Public Health. 2013;103(10):e65–72. doi: 10.2105/ajph.2013.301469.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Lear SA, Humphries KH, Kohli S, Chockalingam A, Frohlich JJ, Birmingham CL. Visceral adipose tissue accumulation differs according to ethnic background: results of the Multicultural Community Health Assessment Trial (M-CHAT). Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86(2):353–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Khoo CM, Sairazi S, Taslim S, Gardner D, Wu Y, Lee J, et al. Ethnicity modifies the relationships of insulin resistance, inflammation, and adiponectin with obesity in a multiethnic Asian population. Diabetes Care. 2011;34(5):1120–6. doi: 10.2337/dc10-2097.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Lekva T, Bollerslev J, Godang K, Roland MC, Friis CM, Voldner N, et al. β-cell dysfunction in women with previous gestational diabetes is associated with visceral adipose tissue distribution. Eur J Endocrinol Eur Fed Endocr Soc. 2015;173(1):63–70. doi: 10.1530/eje-15-0153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Junior JP, Frigeri HR, Dos Santos-Weiss IC, de Souza EM, Rego FG, Picheth G, et al. The MTNR1B gene polymorphism rs10830963 is associated with gestational diabetes in a Brazilian population. Gene. 2015;568(1):114–5. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2015.05.024.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Tarquini F, Picchiassi E, Centra M, Pennacchi L, Bini V, Cappuccini B, et al. Body mass index associated to rs2021966 ENPP1 polymorphism increases the risk for gestational diabetes mellitus. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2015;31(1):83–6. doi: 10.3109/09513590.2014.958994.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kim SY, Sappenfield W, Sharma AJ, Wilson HG, Bish CL, Salihu HM, et al. Racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus and maternal overweight and obesity, by nativity, Florida, 2004–2007. Obesity. 2013;21(1):E33–40. doi: 10.1002/oby.20025.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Zhang C, Ning Y. Effect of dietary and lifestyle factors on the risk of gestational diabetes: review of epidemiologic evidence. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;94(6 Suppl):1975S–9. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.110.001032.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Kun A, Tornoczky J, Tabak AG. The prevalence and predictors of gestational diabetes mellitus in Hungary. Horm Metab Res. 2011;43(11):788–93. doi: 10.1055/s-0031-1287795.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Mwanri AW, Kinabo J, Ramaiya K, Feskens EJ. Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus in urban and rural Tanzania. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2014;103(1):71–8. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2013.11.021.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Barden A, Singh R, Walters B, Phillips M, Beilin LJ. A simple scoring method using cardiometabolic risk measurements in pregnancy to determine 10-year risk of type 2 diabetes in women with gestational diabetes. Nutr Diabetes. 2013;3:e72. doi: 10.1038/nutd.2013.15.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Mukerji G, Chiu M, Shah BR. Impact of gestational diabetes on the risk of diabetes following pregnancy among Chinese and South Asian women. Diabetologia. 2012;55(8):2148–53. doi: 10.1007/s00125-012-2549-6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Wang Y, Chen L, Horswell R, Xiao K, Besse J, Johnson J, et al. Racial differences in the association between gestational diabetes mellitus and risk of type 2 diabetes. J Women's Health. 2012;21(6):628–33. doi: 10.1089/jwh.2011.3318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hummel S, Much D, Rossbauer M, Ziegler AG, Beyerlein A. Postpartum outcomes in women with gestational diabetes and their offspring: POGO study design and first-year results. Rev Diabet Stud. 2013;10(1):49–57. doi: 10.1900/rds.2013.10.49.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Pintaudi B, Lucisano G, Pellegrini F, D'Ettorre A, Lepore V, De Berardis G, et al. The long-term effects of stillbirth on women with and without gestational diabetes: a population-based cohort study. Diabetologia. 2015;58(1):67–74. doi: 10.1007/s00125-014-3403-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Cormier H, Vigneault J, Garneau V, Tchernof A, Vohl MC, Weisnagel SJ, et al. An explained variance-based genetic risk score associated with gestational diabetes antecedent and with progression to pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes: a cohort study. BJOG Int J Obstet Gynaecol. 2015;122(3):411–9. doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.12937.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Rottenkolber M, Ferrari U, Holland L, Aertsen S, Kammer NN, Hetterich H, et al. The diabetes risk phenotype of young women with recent gestational diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015;100(6):E910–8. doi: 10.1210/jc.2014-3898.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Krishnaveni GV, Hill JC, Veena SR, Geetha S, Jayakurnar MN, Karat CLS, et al. Gestational diabetes and the incidence of diabetes in the 5 years following the index pregnancy in South Indian women. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2007;78(3):398–404. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2007.06.002.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Jarvela IY, Juutinen J, Koskela P, Hartikainen AL, Kulmala P, Knip M, et al. Gestational diabetes identifies women at risk for permanent type 1 and type 2 diabetes in fertile age—predictive role of autoantibodies. Diabetes Care. 2006;29(3):607–12. doi: 10.2337/diacare.29.03.06.dc05-1118.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Linne Y, Barkeling B, Rossner S. Natural course of gestational diabetes mellitus: long term follow up of women in the SPAWN study. BJOG. 2002;109(11):1227–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Aberg AEB, Jonsson EK, Eskilsson I, Landin-Olsson M, Frid AH. Predictive factors of developing diabetes mellitus in women with gestational diabetes. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2002;81(1):11–6. doi: 10.1046/j.0001-6349.2001.00000.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Persson B, Hanson U, Hartling SG, Binder C. Follow-up of women with previous GDM. Insulin, C-peptide, and proinsulin responses to oral glucose load. Diabetes. 1991;40 Suppl 2:136–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Gunderson EP, Lewis CE, Tsai AL, Chiang V, Carnethon M, Quesenberry CP, et al. A 20-year prospective study of childbearing and incidence of diabetes in young women, controlling for glycemia before conception—The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. Diabetes. 2007;56(12):2990–6. doi: 10.2337/db07-1024.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    O'Sullivan JB. The Boston gestational diabetes studies: review and perspectives. London: Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg; 1984.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Osei K, Gaillard TR, Schuster DP. History of gestational diabetes leads to distinct metabolic alterations in nondiabetic African-American women with a parental history of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 1998;21(8):1250–7. doi: 10.2337/diacare.21.8.1250.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Feig DS, Zinman B, Wang X, Hux JE. Risk of development of diabetes mellitus after diagnosis of gestational diabetes. CMAJ. 2008;179(3):229–34. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.080012.
  69. 69.
    Ferraz TB, Motta RS, Ferraz CL, Capibaribe DM, Forti AC, Chacra AR. C-reactive protein and features of metabolic syndrome in Brazilian women with previous gestational diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2007;78(1):23–9. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2007.01.025.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Morimitsu LK, Fusaro AS, Sanchez VH, Hagemann CCF, Bertini AM, Dib SA. Fibrinolytic dysfunction after gestation is associated to components of insulin resistance and early type 2 diabetes in Latino women with previous gestational diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2007;78(3):340–8. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2007.04.013.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Lee AJ, Hiscock RJ, Wein P, Walker SP, Permezel M. Gestational diabetes mellitus: clinical predictors and long-term risk of developing type 2 diabetes—a retrospective cohort study using survival analysis. Diabetes Care. 2007;30(4):878–83. doi: 10.2337/dc06-1816.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Ko GTC, Chan JCN, Tsang LWW, Li CY, Cockram CS. Glucose intolerance and other cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus. Aust N J Obstet Gynaecol. 1999;39(4):478–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Bian XM, Gao P, Xiong XY, Xu H, Qian ML, Liu SY. Risk factors for development of diabetes mellitus in women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus. Chin Med J Peking. 2000;113(8):759–62.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Lee H, Jang HC, Park HK, Metzger BE, Cho NH. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes among women with a previous history of gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2008;81(1):124–9. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2008.02.017.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Benjamin E, Winters D, Mayfield J, Gohdes D. Diabetes in pregnancy in Zuni Indian women—prevalence and subsequent development of clinical diabetes after gestational diabetes. Diabetes Care. 1993;16(9):1231–5. doi: 10.2337/diacare.16.9.1231.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Damm P, Kuhl C, Buschard K, Jakobsen BK, Svejgaard A, Sodoyez-Goffaux F, et al. Prevalence and predictive value of islet cell antibodies and insulin autoantibodies in women with gestational diabetes. Diabet Med J Br Diabet Assoc. 1994;11(6):558–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Vambergue A, Dognin C, Boulogne A, Rejou MC, Biausque S, Fontaine P. Increasing incidence of abnormal glucose tolerance in women with prior abnormal glucose tolerance during pregnancy: DIAGEST 2 study. Diabet Med. 2008;25(1):58–64. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2007.02306.x.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Madarasz E, Tamas G, Tabak GA, Szalay J, Kerenyi Z. Metabolic syndrome after pregnancy complicated with gestational diabetes: four-year follow-up. Orv Hetil. 2008;149(18):831–8. doi: 10.1556/OH.2008.28242.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Albareda M, Caballero A, Badell G, Piquer S, Ortiz A, de Leiva A, et al. Diabetes and abnormal glucose tolerance in women with previous gestational diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2003;26(4):1199–205. doi: 10.2337/diacare.26.4.1199.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York (outside the USA) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Epidemiology Branch, Division of Intramural Population Health ResearchEunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIHRockvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations