Diabetes Distress Among Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes: a Systematic Review
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Diabetes distress (DD) refers to the negative emotions arising from living with diabetes and the burden of self-management. Among adults, the prevalence and significance of DD are well established, but this is not the case among adolescents. This systematic review investigated among adolescents with type 1 diabetes: the prevalence of DD; demographic, clinical, behavioral and psychosocial correlates of DD and interventions that reduce DD. Consistent with adult studies, around one third of adolescents experience elevated DD and this is frequently associated with suboptimal glycemic control, low self-efficacy and reduced self-care. Three measures of DD have been developed specifically for adolescents, as those designed for adults may not be sufficiently sensitive to adolescent concerns. Interventions reducing DD in the short term include strategies such as cognitive restructuring, goal setting and problem solving. Further work is needed to investigate sustainability of effect. Rigorous research is needed to progress this field among adolescents.
KeywordsAdolescent Type 1 diabetes Emotions Psychological stress Distress Review
VH, JSp, CH and JSt planned the review. VH conducted the search, screened and reviewed studies, extracted and analysed the data and drafted the manuscript. JSp also screened studies, and JSp and CH co-reviewed full-text papers for inclusion and provided substantial contributions to the manuscript. All authors contributed to the search strategy and drafts, and read and approved the final manuscript. The authors did not receive funding to undertake this study.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Virginia Hagger, Christel Hendrieckx, Jackie Sturt, Timothy Skinner and Jane Speight declare they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This manuscript represents the authors’ own work, and the work of others’ is acknowledged appropriately. This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors. As this study is a review of the published literature, ethical committee approval was not required.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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