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Current Diabetes Reports

, 15:116 | Cite as

Epidemiology of NAFLD and Type 2 Diabetes: Health Disparities Among Persons of Hispanic Origin

  • Mariana LazoEmail author
  • Usama BilalEmail author
  • Rafael Perez-Escamilla
Diabetes Epidemiology (NM Maruthur, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Diabetes Epidemiology

Abstract

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver condition in the USA and worldwide and affects Hispanics disproportionally. In this review, we aim to document and contrast the epidemiology of NAFLD and type 2 diabetes, provide a framework to study health disparities in NAFLD in Hispanic populations, and identify points of action within the health care system to tackle these health disparities. NAFLD shares many common risk factors with type 2 diabetes, specially obesity and insulin resistance, but shows different prevalence patterns by ethnicity: while Hispanics are disproportionately affected by both NAFLD and type 2 diabetes, non-Hispanic black populations have a low prevalence of NAFLD. The current literature suggests a strong role of polymorphisms in the PNPLA3 gene and potential interactions with environmental factors in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. However, given potential interactions and the shared risk factors with type 2 diabetes, a health disparity approach that acknowledges upstream determinants is needed. Solutions to these determinants can also be found in the health system. The role of interventions that have shown efficacy in type 2 diabetes, like community health workers, may be implemented to prevent and control NAFLD.

Keywords

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease Type 2 diabetes Epidemiology Hispanics PNPLA3 Health disparities 

Notes

Compliance with Ethics Guidelines

Conflict of Interest

Mariana Lazo, Usama Bilal, and Rafael Perez-Escamilla declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of General Internal MedicineJohns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.The Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical ResearchJohns Hopkins UniversityBaltimoreUSA
  3. 3.Department of EpidemiologyJohns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthBaltimoreUSA
  4. 4.Department of Chronic Disease EpidemiologyYale School of Public HealthNew HavenUSA

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