Current Diabetes Reports

, 15:82 | Cite as

Targeting Inflammation Through a Physical Active Lifestyle and Pharmaceuticals for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes

  • Sine Haugaard Knudsen
  • Bente Klarlund PedersenEmail author
Pharmacologic Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes (HE Lebovitz and G Bahtiyar, Section Editors)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Pharmacologic Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes


Evidence exists that interleukin (IL)-1β is involved in pancreatic β-cell damage, whereas TNF-α appears to be a key molecule in peripheral insulin resistance. Although increased plasma levels of IL-6 are seen in individuals with type 2 diabetes, mechanistic studies suggest that moderate acute elevations in IL-6, as provoked by exercise, exert anti-inflammatory effects by an inhibition of TNF-α and by stimulating IL-1 receptor antagonist (ra), thereby limiting IL-1β signaling. A number of medical treatments have anti-inflammatory effects. IL-1 antagonists have been tested in clinical studies and appear very promising. Also, there is a potential for anti-TNF-α strategies and salsalate has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity in clinical trials. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory potential of statins, antagonists of the renin–angiotensin system, and glucose-lowering agents are discussed. While waiting for the outcome of long-term clinical pharmacological trials, it should be emphasized that physical activity represents a natural strong anti-inflammatory intervention with little or no side effects.


Exercise Physical training Anti-inflammation Myokines Drugs 


Compliance with Ethics Guidelines

Conflict of Interest

Sine Haugaard Knudsen and Bente Klarlund Pedersen declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sine Haugaard Knudsen
    • 1
  • Bente Klarlund Pedersen
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Centre of Inflammation and Metabolism/Centre of Physical Activity Research (CIM/CFAS), RigshospitaletUniversity of CopenhagenCopenhagenDenmark

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