Type 2 Diabetes in Youth in South Asia
- 528 Downloads
People of South Asian origin are at a high risk of developing diabetes compared to that of other ethnic groups. Recent evidence suggests an emerging epidemic of youth-onset type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in the region, in parallel with the childhood obesity epidemic. Many risk factors such as foetal and early-life influences, the South Asian phenotype, family history of diabetes and environment factors are responsible for the early occurrence of T2DM in South Asia. The high risk supports the need for the opportunistic screening of children and adolescents for diabetes in South Asian countries. Early detection, lifestyle modification, weight reduction and drugs are central to the care of children with T2DM. Both population-based preventive strategies and interventions targeting children and adolescents with obesity and impaired glucose tolerance are required to combat the epidemic of youth-onset T2DM in South Asia.
KeywordsYouth-onset diabetes Type 2 diabetes mellitus South Asia Childhood obesity Impaired glucose tolerance South Asian phenotype Insulin resistance Metabolic syndrome
Compliance with Ethics Guidelines
Conflict of Interest
Praveen P A, Ram Kumar S and Nikhil Tandon declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
- 1.International Diabetes Federation. World Diabetes Atlas. 6th ed. Brussels: International Diabetes Federation; 2013.Google Scholar
- 17.Anjana RM, Pradeepa R, Deepa M, et al. Prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes (impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance) in urban and rural India: phase I results of the Indian Council of Medical Research-INdia DIABetes (ICMR-INDIAB) study. Diabetologia. 2011;54(12):3022–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 33.•Singh Y, Garg MK, Tandon N, et al. A study of insulin resistance by HOMA-IR and its cut-off value to identify metabolic syndrome in urban Indian adolescents. J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol. 2013;5(4):245–51. This study suggests cut-off values of HOMA-IR, relevant to South Asian adolescents for defining metabolic syndrome.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 50.Bishwajit G, Ide S, Hossain MA, Safa MN. Trade Liberalization, urbanization and nutrition transition in Asian countries. J Nutr Heal Food Sci. 2014;1(1):5.Google Scholar
- 51.National Sample Survey Organisation, New Delhi I. Nutritional intake in India. 66 Round NSS Consumer Expenditure Survey. 2012.Google Scholar
- 57.The Global Youth Tobacco Survey Collaborative Group. Tobacco use among youth: a cross country comparison. Tob Control. 2002;11(3):252–70.Google Scholar
- 61.Singhal N, Misra A, Shah P, et al. Impact of intensive school-based nutrition education and lifestyle interventions on insulin resistance, β-cell function, disposition index, and subclinical inflammation among Asian Indian adolescents: a controlled intervention study. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2011;9(2):143–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 62.Global IDF-ISPAD Guidelines for Diabetes in Childhood and Adolescence. IDF/ISPAD. 2011.Google Scholar
- 64.•Zeitler P, Hirst K, Pyle L, et al. A clinical trial to maintain glycemic control in youth with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2012;366(24):2247–56. This is a clinical trial comparing the efficacy of three treatment regimens to attain glycemic control in children and adolescents with type 2 diabetes.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 67.American Diabetes Association. Executive summary: standards of medical care in diabetes—2011. Diabetes Care. 2011;34(Suppl 1):S4–10.Google Scholar
- 70.American Diabetes Association. Type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents. Diabetes Care. 2000;23(3):381–9.Google Scholar
- 71.American Diabetes Association. Type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2000;105(3 Pt 1):671–80.Google Scholar
- 79.Bhowmik B, Binte Munir S, Ara Hossain I, et al. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose regulation with associated cardiometabolic risk factors and depression in an urbanizing rural community in Bangladesh: a population-based cross-sectional study. Diabetes Metab J. 2012;36(6):422–32.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 96.Sasaki H, Kawasaki T, Ogaki T, et al. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus and impaired fasting glucose/glycaemia (IFG) in suburban and rural Nepal—the communities-based cross-sectional study during the democratic movements in 1990. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2005;67(2):167–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar