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Current Diabetes Reports

, 15:1 | Cite as

Impact of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in the Maternal-to-Fetal Transport of Nutrients

  • João Ricardo AraújoEmail author
  • Elisa Keating
  • Fátima Martel
Diabetes and Pregnancy (CJ Homko, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Diabetes and Pregnancy

Abstract

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a metabolic disorder prevalent among pregnant women. This disease increases the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes and diseases in the offspring later in life. The human placenta, the main interface between the maternal and fetal blood circulations, is responsible for the maternal-to-fetal transfer of nutrients essential for fetal growth and development. In this context, the aim of this article is to review the latest advances in the placental transport of macro and micronutrients and how they are affected by GDM and its associated conditions, such as elevated levels of glucose, insulin, leptin, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Data analyzed in this article suggest that GDM and its associated conditions, particularly high levels of glucose, leptin, and oxidative stress, disturb placental nutrient transport and, consequently, fetal nutrient supply. As a consequence, this disturbance may contribute to the fetal and postnatal adverse health outcomes associated with GDM.

Keywords

Gestational diabetes Placenta Transport Nutrients Fetal programming 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) and COMPETE, QREN, and FEDER (SFRH/BD/63086/2009).

Compliance with Ethics Guidelines

Conflict of Interest

João Ricardo Araújo, Elisa Keating, and Fátima Martel declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • João Ricardo Araújo
    • 1
    Email author
  • Elisa Keating
    • 1
    • 2
  • Fátima Martel
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine of PortoUniversity of PortoPortoPortugal
  2. 2.Center for Biotechnology and Fine Chemistry, School of BiotechnologyPortuguese Catholic UniversityPortoPortugal

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