Advertisement

Current Diabetes Reports

, 14:508 | Cite as

Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes in Children: Epidemiology and Treatment

  • Elizabeth R. Pulgaron
  • Alan M. DelamaterEmail author
Obesity (J McCaffery, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Obesity

Abstract

The incidence of overweight and obesity among children has increased dramatically in recent decades, with about one-third of children in the U.S. currently being either overweight or obese. Being overweight in early childhood increases risk for later obesity. There is evidence for the efficacy of family-based behavioral treatment to control weight and improve health outcomes. Obesity-related health risks have been documented, including metabolic syndrome. There is also increasing incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) among youth in recent years, with obesity and family history of T2D generally present. Lower income and ethnic minority status are associated with both obesity and T2D in youth. Most youth with T2D do not achieve optimal glycemic control, and are at high risk for later health complications. Obesity and T2D represent significant public health issues with potentially great personal and societal cost. Research addressing the prevention of obesity and T2D among youth is urgently needed.

Keywords

Children Adolescents Overweight Obese Type 2 diabetes Treatment Prevention 

Notes

Acknowledgment

The authors are grateful for the assistance provided by Maria Toro in the preparation of this manuscript.

Compliance with Ethics Guidelines

Conflict of Interest

Elizabeth R. Pulgaron and Alan M. Delamater declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

  1. 1.••
    Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, et al. Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States, 2011-2012. J Am Med Assn. 2014;311:806–814. This epidemiologic study reports rates of overweight and obesity in children in the United States by age, gender, and ethnic groups.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    de Onis M, Blössner M, Borghi E. Global prevalence and trends of overweight and obesity among preschool children. Am J Clin Nutri. 2010;92:1257–64.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kumanyika S, Grier S. Targeting interventions for ethnic minority and low-income populations. Future Child. 2006;16:187–207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.••
    Cunningham SA, Kramer MR, Venkat Narayan KM. Incidence of childhood obesity in the United States. New Engl J Med. 2014;370:403–11. This prospective study demonstrates the importance of overweight in early childhood as a predictor of obesity later in childhood.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pulgarón ER. Childhood obesity: a review of increased risk for physical and psychological comorbidities. Clin Ther. 2013;35:A18–32.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sinha R, Fisch G, Teague B, Tamborlane WV, Banyas B, Allen K, et al. Prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance among children and adolescents with marked obesity. N Engl J Med. 2002;346:802–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Weiss R, Dzuira J, Burgert TS, et al. Obesity and the metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. N Eng J Med. 2004;350:2362–74.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Huang J, Gottschalk M, Norman G, Calfas K, Sallis J, Patrick K. Compliance with behavioral guidelines for diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviors is related to insulin resistance among overweight and obese youth. BMC Res Notes. 2011;4:29.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.•
    Delamater AM, Pulgaron ER, Daigre A. Obesity in adolescence. In: O’Donohue W, Benuto L, Tolle L, editors. Adolescent health psychology. New York: Springer; 2013. p. 597–618. This chapter reviews the evidence for various approaches for treatment of obesity in adolescents. Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Schwimmer JB, Burnwinkle TM, Varni JW. Health related quality of life of severely obese children and adolescents. J Am Med Assn. 2003;289:1813–9.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Goodman E, Whitaker RC. A prospective study of the role of depression in the development and persistence of adolescent obesity. Pediatrics. 2002;110:497–504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Reilly JJ. Long-term impact of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence on morbidity and premature mortality in adulthood: systematic review. Int J Obesity. 2011;35:891–8.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gortmaker SL, Must A, Perrin JM, et al. Social and economic consequences of overweight in adolescence and young adulthood. N Engl J Med. 1993;32:1008–12.Google Scholar
  14. 14.•
    Rolland-Cachera MF, Deheeger M, Maillot M, et al. Early adiposity rebound: causes and consequences for obesity in children and adults. Int J Obes. 2006;30:S11–7. Epidemiologic longitudinal study showing importance of early adiposity rebound as a predictor of higher body mass index later in childhood.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Williams SM, Goulding A. Patterns of growth associated with the timing of adiposity rebound. Obesity. 2009;17:335–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pate RR, O’Neill JR, Liese AD, et al. Factors associated with development of excessive fatness in children and adolescents: a review of prospective studies. Obes Rev. 2013;14:645–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Thibault H, Contrand B, Saubusse E, et al. Risk factors for overweight and obesity in French adolescents: physical activity, sedentary behavior and parental characteristics. Nutrition. 2010;26:192–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Polley DC, Spicer MT, Knight AP, et al. Intrafamilial correlates of overweight and obesity in African-American and Native-American grandparents, parents, and children in rural Oklahoma. J Am Diet Assoc. 2005;105:262–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kitsantas P, Gaffney KF. Risk profiles for overweight/obesity among preschoolers. Early Hum Dev. 2010;86:563–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Francis LA, Ventura AK, Birch LL, et al. Parent overweight predicts daughters’ increase in BMI and disinhibited overeating from 5 to 13 years. Obesity. 2007;15:1544–53.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Silventoinen K, Rokholm B, Kaprio J, Sørensen TI. The genetic and environmental influences on childhood obesity: a systematic review of twin and adoption studies. Int J Obesity. 2010;34:29–40.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Huffman FG, Kanikireddy S, Patel M. Parenthood—a contributing factor to childhood obesity. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2010;7:2800–10.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hendrie GA, Coveney J, Cox DN. Defining the complexity of childhood obesity and related behaviours within the family environment using structural equation modelling. Public Health Nutr. 2011;15:48–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Elder JP, Arredondo EM, Campbell N, et al. Individual, family, and community environmental correlates of obesity in Latino elementary school children. J Sch Health. 2010;80:20–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Epstein LH, Raja S, Daniel TO, et al. The built environment moderates effects of family-based childhood obesity treatment over 2 years. Ann Behav Med. 2012;44:248–58.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Currie J, Della Vigna S, Moretti E, et al. The effect of fast food restaurants on obesity and weight gain. Am Economic J. 2010;2:32–63.Google Scholar
  27. 27.••
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance—United States. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2012;61:1–168. This study documents low rates of healthy eating and physical activity among high school students.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Dennison BA, Erb TA, Jenkins PL. Television viewing and television in bedroom associated with overweight risk among low-income preschool children. Pediatrics. 2002;109:1028–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Steffen LM, Shifan D, Fulton JE, et al. Overweight in children and adolescents associated with TV viewing and parental weight project heartbeat! Am J Prev Med. 2009;37:S50–5.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Trevino RP, Marshall RM, Hale DE, Rodriguez R, Baker G, Gomez J. Diabetes risk factors in low-income Mexican-American children. Diabetes Care. 1999;22:202–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Cruz ML, Weigensberg MJ, Huang TT, Ball G, Shaibi GQ, Goran MI. The metabolic syndrome in overweight Hispanic youth and the role of insulin sensitivity. J Clin Endocr Metab. 2004;89:108–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Arslanian S, Suprasongsin C. Differences in the vivo insulin secretion and sensitivity of healthy Black vs White adolescents. J Pediatr. 1996;129:440–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Troiano RP. Physical inactivity among young people. N Engl J Med. 2002;347:706–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gordon-Larsen P, McMurray RG, Popkin BM. Determinants of adolescent physical activity and inactivity patterns. Pediatrics. 2000;105:e83–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Black JL, Macinko J. Neighborhoods and obesity. Nutr Rev. 2008;66:2–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Sallis JF, Zakarian JM, Hovell MF, Hofstetter R. Ethnic, socioeconomic, and sex differences in physical activity among adolescents. J Clin Epidemiol. 1996;49:125–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Poortinga W. Perceptions of the environment, physical activity, and obesity. Soc Sci Med. 2006;63:2835–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Romero AJ. Low-income neighborhood barriers and resources for adolescents’ physical activity. J Adolesc Health. 2005;36:253–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Frank LD, Andresen MA, Schmid TL. Obesity relationships with community design, physical activity, and time spent in cars. Am J Prev Med. 2004;27:87–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Baker EA, Schootman M, Barnidge E, Kelly C. The role of race and poverty in access to foods that enable individuals to adhere to dietary guidelines. Prev Chron Dis. 2006;3:A76.Google Scholar
  41. 41.••
    US Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for obesity in children and adolescents: US preventive services task force recommendation statement. Pediatrics. 2010;125:361–7. This report provides recommendations for the evaluation and treatment of obesity in children and adolescents.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Nemet D, Barkan S, Epstein L, et al. Short and long term beneficial effects of a combined dietary-behavioral-physical activity intervention for the treatment of childhood obesity. Pediatrics. 2005;115:443–9.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Steele RG, Aylward B, Jensen CD, et al. Comparison of a family-based group intervention for youths with obesity to a brief individual family intervention: a practical clinical trial of Positively Fit. J Pediatr Psychol. 2011;37;1–11.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Saelens BE, Lozano P, Scholz K. A randomized clinical trial comparing delivery of behavioral pediatric obesity treatment using standard and enhanced motivational approaches. J Pediatr Psychol. 2013;38:954–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    de Niet J, Timman R, Jongejan M, Passchier J, van den Akker E. Predictors of participant dropout at various stages of a pediatric lifestyle program. Pediatrics. 2011;127:e164–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Savoye M, Nowicka P, Shaw M, Yu S, Dziura J, Chavent G, et al. Long-term results of an obesity program in an ethnically diverse pediatric population. Pediatr. 2011;127:402–10.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Winett RA, Roodman AA, Winett SG, Bajzek W, Rovniak LS, Whiteley JA. The effects of Eat4Life internet-based health behavior program on the nutrition and activity practices of high school girls. J Gender Cult Health. 1999;4:239–54.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Davis AM, Sampilo M, Gallagher KS, Landrum Y, Malone B. Treating rural pediatric obesity through telemedicine: outcomes from a small randomized controlled trial. J Pediatr Psychol. 2013;38:932–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Lipana LS, Bindal D, Nettiksimmons J, et al. Telemedicine and face-to-face care for pediatric obesity. Telemed e-Health. 2013;19:806–8.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Delamater AM, Pulgaron ER, Rarback S, Hernandez J, Carrillo A, Christiansen S, et al. Web-based family intervention for overweight children: a pilot study. Childhood Obes. 2013;9:57–63.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Mulgrew KW, Shaikh U, Nettiksimmons J. Comparison of parent satisfaction with care for childhood obesity delivered face-to-face and by telemedicine. Telemed J E Health. 2011;17:383–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kelly KP, Kirschenbaum DS. Immersion treatment of childhood and adolescent obesity: the first review of a promising intervention. Obes Rev. 2011;12:37–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Braet C, Tanghe A, Decaluwè V, et al. Inpatient treatment for children with obesity: weight loss, psychological well-being, and eating behavior. J Pediatr Pyschol. 2004;29:519–29.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Huelsing J, Kanafani N, Mao J, et al. Camp jump start: effects of a residential summer weight-loss camp for older children and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2010;125:e884–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Viner RM, Hsia Y, Tomsic T, et al. Efficacy and safety of anti-obesity drugs in children and adolescents: systematic review and meta-analysis. Obes Rev. 2010;11:593–602.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kay JP, Alemzadeh R, Langley G, et al. Beneficial effects of metformin in normoglycemic morbidly obese adolescents. Metabolism. 2001;50:1457–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Srinivasan S, Ambler GR, Baur LA, et al. Randomized, controlled trial of metformin for obesity and insulin résistance in children and adolescents: Improvement in body composition and fasting insulin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91:2074–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Matson KL, Fallon RM. Treatment of obesity in children and adolescents. J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther. 2012;17:45–57.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.•
    Bondada S, Jen HC, Duegarte DA. Outcomes of bariatric surgery in adolescents. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2011;23:552–6. Review of studies of bariatric surgery outcomes for morbidly obese adolescents.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Messiah SE, Lopez-Mitnik G, Winegar D, et al. Changes in weight and co-morbidities among adolescents undergoing bariatric surgery: 1-year results from the Bariatric Outcomes Longitudinal Database. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2013;9:503–13.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Inge TH, Xanthakos SA, Zeller MH. Bariatric surgery for pediatric obesity: now or later? Int J Obes. 2007;31:1–14.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Johnson SB, Pilkington LL, Lamp C, He J, Deeb LC. Parent reactions to a school‐based body mass index screening program. J School Health. 2009;79:216–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Grey M, Jaser SS, Holl MG, Jefferson V, Dziura J, Northrup V. A multifaceted school-based intervention to reduce risk for type 2 diabetes in at-risk youth. Prev Med. 2009;49:122–8.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.••
    The Healthy Study Group. A school-based intervention for diabetes risk reduction. N Engl J Med. 2010;363:443–53. Report of a national multi-site randomized controlled trial to prevent type 2 diabetes in youth.PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Kaufman FR, Hirst K, Linder B, Baranowski T, Cooper DM, Foster GD, et al. Risk factors for type 2 diabetes in a sixth-grade multiracial cohort: the HEALTHY study. Diabetes Care. 2009;32:953–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Arslanian SA. Type 2 diabetes mellitus in children: pathophysiology and risk factors. J Pediatr Endocr Met. 2000;13:1385–94.Google Scholar
  67. 67.••
    Rosenbloom AL, Silverstein JH, Amemiya S, Zeitler P, Klingensmith G. ISPAD Clinical Practice Consensus Guidelines 2007-2007. Type 2 diabetes mellitus in the child and adolescent. Pediatr Diabetes. 2009;9:512–26. Report of consensus guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of type 2 diabetes in youth.Google Scholar
  68. 68.•
    Chen L, Magliano DJ, Zimmet PZ. The worldwide epidemiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus—present and future perspectives. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2012;8:228–36. Discussion of data on rising incidence of type 2 diabetes among youth throughout the world.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Cizza G, Brown RJ, Rothe KI. Rising incidence and challenges of childhood diabetes. A Mini-RevJ Endocrinol Invest. 2012;35:541–6.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Fagot-Campagna A, Pettitt DJ, Engelgau MM, Burrows NR, Geiss LS, Valdez R, et al. Type 2 diabetes among North American children and adolescents: an epidemiologic review and a public health perspective. J Pediatr. 2000;136:664–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Liese AD, D'Agostino RB, Hamman RF, Kilgo PD, Lawrence JM, Liu LL, et al. The burden of diabetes mellitus among US youth: prevalence estimates from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study. Pediatrics. 2006;118:1510–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Dabelea D, Bell RA, D'Agostino RB, Imperatore G, Johansen JM, Linder B, et al. Incidence of diabetes in youth in the United States. J Am Med Assoc. 2007;297:2716–24.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    American Diabetes Association. Type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents. Diabetes Care. 2000;23:381–9.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Kaufman F. Type 2 diabetes in youth: rates, antecedents, treatment, problems and prevention. Pediatr Diabetes. 2007;8:4–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Pinhas-Hamiel O, Dolan LM, Daniels SR, Standiford D, Khoury PR, Zeitler P. Increased incidence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus among adolescents. J Pediatr. 1996;128:608–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Neufeld ND, Raffel LJ, Landon C, Chen YDI, Vadheim CM. Early presentation of type 2 diabetes in Mexican-American youth. Diabetes Care. 1998;21:80–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Haines L, Wan KC, Lynn R, Barrett TG, Shield J. Rising incidence of type 2 diabetes in children in the U.K. Diabetes Care. 2007;30:1097–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Mohan V, Jaydip R, Deepa R. Type 2 diabetes in Asian Indian youth. Pediatr Diabetes. 2007;8 Suppl 9:28–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Tang M, Chen Y, Krewski D. Gender-related differences in the association between socioeconomic status and self-reported diabetes. Int J Epidemiol. 2003;32:381–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Delva J, O’Malley PM, Johnston LD. Racial/ethnic and socioeconomic status differences in overweight and health-related behaviors among American students: national trends 1986-2003. J Adolescent Health. 2006;39:536–45.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Shaw J. Epidemiology of childhood type 2 diabetes and obesity. Pediatr Diabetes. 2007;8 Suppl 9:7–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Scott CR, Smith JM, Michaeleen C, Pihoker C. Characteristics of youth-onset noninsulin-diabetes mellitus and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus at diagnosis. Pediatrics. 1997;100:84–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Dean HJ, Sellers EA. Comorbidities and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents. Pediatr Diabetes. 2007;8 Suppl 9:35–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Pinhas-Hamiel O, Zeitler P. Acute and chronic complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents. Lancet. 2007;369:1823–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Copeland KC, Zeitler P, Geffner M, Guandalini C, Higgins J, Hirst K, et al. The TODAY Study Group. Characteristics of adolescents and youth with recent-onset type 2 diabetes: the TODAY cohort at baseline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96:159–67.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Levitt Katz LE, Magge SN, Hernandez ML, Murphy KM, McKnight HM, Lipman T. Glycemic control in youth with type 2 diabetes declines as early as two years after diagnosis. J Pediatr. 2011;158:100–5.Google Scholar
  87. 87.••
    Rhodes ET, Prosser LA, Hoerger TJ, Lieu T, Ludwig DS, Laffel LM. Estimated morbidity and mortality in adolescents and young adults diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabet Med. 2012;29:453–63. This report estimates the high morbidity and early mortality expected among youth with type 2 diabetes.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Pinhas-Hamiel O, Standiford D, Hamiel D, Dolan LM, Cohen R, Zeitler S. The type 2 family: a setting for development and treatment of adolescent type 2 diabetes. Arch Pediat Adol Med. 1999;153:1063–7.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Rothman RL, Mulvaney S, Elasy TA, VanderWoude A, Gebretsadik T, Shintani A, et al. Self-management behaviors, racial disparities, and glycemic control among adolescents with type 2 diabetes. Pediatrics. 2008;121:e912–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Shaibi GQ, Faulknere MS, Wegensberg MJ, Fritschi C, Goran MI. Cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity in youth with type 2 diabetes. Pediatr Diabetes. 2008;9:460–3.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Kriska A, Delahanty L, Edelstein S, Amodei N, Chadwick J, Copeland K, et al. Sedentary behavior and physical activity in youth with recent onset of type 2 diabetes. Pediatrics. 2013;131:e850–6.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Jones KL, Arslanian S, Peterokova VA, Park J, Tomlinson MJ. Effect of metformin in pediatric patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2002;25:89–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.•
    George MM, Copeland KC. Current treatment options for type 2 diabetes mellitus in youth: today’s realities and lessons from the TODAY study. Curr Diab Rep. 2013;13:72–80. This article discusses implications of the TODAY trial including a review of various pharmacologic treatment approaches.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Pinhas-Hamiel O, Zeitler P. Clinical presentation and treatment of type 2 diabetes in children. Pediatr Diabetes. 2007;8(9):16–27 (b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Pinhas-Hamiel O, Zeitler P. Barriers to the treatment of adolescent type 2 diabetes—a survey of provider perceptions. Pediatr Diabetes. 2003;4:24–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.••
    The TODAY Study Group. A clinical trial to maintain glycemic control in youth with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2012;366:2247–56. Reports the results of a large national multi-site randomized controlled trial to improve glycemic control in youth with type 2 diabetes.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Delamater AM, Jacquez F, Patino-Fernandez, AM. Type 2 diabetes in youth. In O’Donohue W, Tolle L, editors. Behavioral Approaches to Chronic Disease in Adolescence. New York: Springer; 2009.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Willi SM, Martin K, Datko FM, Brant BP. Treatment of type 2 diabetes in childhood using a very-low-calorie diet. Diabetes Care. 2004;27:348–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Inge TH, Miyano G, Bean J, Helmrath M, Courcoulas A, Harmon CM, et al. Reversal of type 2 diabetes mellitus and improvements in cardiovascular risk factors after surgical weight loss in adolescents. Pediatrics. 2009;123:214–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Mulvaney SA, Schlundt DG, Mudasiru E, Fleming M, Vander Woude AM, Russell WE, et al. Parent perceptions of caring for adolescents with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2006;29:993–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Jones KL. Non-insulin dependent diabetes in children and adolescents: the therapeutic challenge. Clin Pediatr. 1998;37:103–10.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Anderson BJ, Cullen K, McKay S. Quality of life, family behavior, and health outcomes in children with type 2 diabetes. Pediatr Ann. 2005;34:722–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Kawahara R, Amemiya T, Yoshino M, et al. Dropout of young non-insulin-dependent diabetics from diabetic care. Diabetes Res Clin Pr. 1994;24:181–5.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Owada M, Nitadori Y, Kitagawa T. Treatment of NIDDM in youth. Clin Pediatr. 1998;37:117–21.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Pihoker C, Scott CR, Lensing SY, Cradock MM, Smith J. Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in African-American youths of Arkansas. Clin Pediatr. 1998;37:97–102.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Reinehr T, Schober E, Roth CL, Wiegand S, Holl R. Type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents in a 2 year follow-up: insufficient adherence to diabetes centers. Horm Res Pediatr. 2008;69:107–13.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Grinstein G, Muzumdar R, Aponte L, Vuguin P, Saenger P, DiMartino-Nardi J. Presentation and 5-year follow-up of type 2 diabetes mellitus in African-American and Caribbean-Hispanic adolescents. Horm Res Pediatr. 2003;60:121–6.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Radius SM, Dillman TE, Becker MH, Rosenstock IM, Horvath WJ. Adolescent perspectives on health and illness. Adolescence. 1980;15:375–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Skinner AC, Weinberger M, Mulvaney S, Schlundt D, Rothman RL. Accuracy of perceptions of overweight and relation to self-care behaviors among adolescents with type 2 diabetes and their parents. Diabetes Care. 2008;31:227–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Auslander WF, Sterzing PR, Zayas LE, White NH. Psychosocial resources and barriers to self-management in African American adolescents with type 2 diabetes: a qualitative analysis. Diabetes Educ. 2010;36:613–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Mulvaney SA, Mudasiru E, Schlundt DG, Baughman CL, Fleming M, VanderWoude A, et al. Self-management in type 2 diabetes: the adolescent perspective. Diabetes Educator. 2008;34:674–82.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Levitt Katz LE, Swami S, Abraham M, et al. Neuropsychiatric disorders at the presentation of type 2 diabetes mellitus in children. Pediatr Diabetes. 2005;6:84–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Lawrence JM, Standiford DA, Loots B, Klingensmith GJ, Williams DE, Ruggiero A, et al. Prevalence and correlates of depressed mood among youth with diabetes: the SEARCH for diabetes in youth study. Pediatrics. 2006;117:1348–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Anderson BJ, Edelstein S, Abramson NW, Levitt Katz LE, et al. Depressive symptoms and quality of life in adolescents with type 2 diabetes: baseline data from the TODAY study. Diabetes Care. 2011;34:2205–7.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    The TODAY Study Group. Binge eating, mood, and quality of life in youth with type 2 diabetes: baseline data from the TODAY study. Diabetes Care. 2011;34:858–60.PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Varni JW, Burwinkle TM, Jacobs RJ, Gotthalk M, Kaufman F, Jones K. The PedsQL in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2003;26:631–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PediatricsUniversity of Miami Miller School of MedicineMiamiUSA

Personalised recommendations