Diabetes and HIV: Current Understanding and Future Perspectives
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- Kalra, S. & Agrawal, N. Curr Diab Rep (2013) 13: 419. doi:10.1007/s11892-013-0369-9
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Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease with a higher risk of associated infections. HIV infection severely affects diabetic patients and acts as a significant health concern. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has changed HIV from an acute infection to a chronic infection with associated significant metabolic abnormalities such as insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity, and lipodystrophy. These metabolic disturbances add complexity to the standards of care in HIV infection and further increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and renal complications. The co-association of diabetes and HIV needs to be managed appropriately to prevent mortality and morbidity and improve patient outcome. The current understanding of diabetes and other metabolic abnormalities along with management strategies in HIV infected patients are summarized in this article. The review also focuses on recent challenges in the diagnosis and management of co-existent diabetes and HIV infection.