Current Diabetes Reports

, Volume 13, Issue 2, pp 298–306 | Cite as

Meat Consumption, Diabetes, and Its Complications

  • Edith J. M. Feskens
  • Diewertje Sluik
  • Geertruida J. van Woudenbergh
Issues in the Nutritional Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity (E Mayer-Davis, Section Editor)

Abstract

Several prospective studies have reported that risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is elevated in meat consumers, especially when processed meats are consumed. Elevated risks of coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke in meat consumers have also been reported. In this overview, the evidence regarding meat consumption and the risk of diabetes, both type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and T2DM and their macro- and microvascular complications, is reviewed. For T2DM, we performed a new meta-analysis including publications up to October 2012. For T1DM, only a few studies have reported increased risks for meat consumers or for high intake of saturated fatty acids and nitrates and nitrites. For T2DM, CHD, and stroke, the evidence is strongest. Per 100 g of total meat, the pooled relative risk (RR) for T2DM is 1.15 (95 % CI 1.07–1.24), for (unprocessed) red meat 1.13 (95 % CI 1.03–1.23), and for poultry 1.04 (95 % CI 0.99–1.33); per 50 g of processed meat, the pooled RR is 1.32 (95 % CI 1.19–1.48). Hence, the strongest association regarding T2DM is observed for processed (red) meat. A similar observation has been made for CHD. For stroke, however, a recent meta-analysis shows moderately elevated risks for meat consumers, for processed as well as for fresh meats. For the microvascular complications of diabetes, few prospective data were available, but suggestions for elevated risks can be derived from findings on hyperglycemia and hypertension. The results are discussed in the light of the typical nutrients and other compounds present in meat—that is, saturated and trans fatty acids, dietary cholesterol, protein and amino acids, heme-iron, sodium, nitrites and nitrosamines, and advanced glycation end products. In light of these findings, a diet moderate to low in red meat, unprocessed and lean, and prepared at moderate temperatures is probably the best choice from the public health point of view.

Keywords

Review Meat Red meat Processed meat Diabetes Cardiovascular disease Diabetes complications Meta-analysis 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by Wageningen University.

Disclosure

No potential conflicts of interest relevant to this article were reported.

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edith J. M. Feskens
    • 1
  • Diewertje Sluik
    • 1
  • Geertruida J. van Woudenbergh
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Human NutritionWageningen UniversityWageningenThe Netherlands

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