Current Diabetes Reports

, Volume 12, Issue 5, pp 456–462

Guts, Germs, and Meals: The Origin of Type 1 Diabetes

Pathogenesis of Type 1 Diabetes (AG Ziegler, Section Editor)


Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is due, in part, to non-genetically determined factors including environmental factors. The nature of these environmental effects remains unclear but they are important to identify since they may be amenable to therapy. Recently, the gut microbiota, the trillions of microorganisms inhabiting the gut, as well as diet, have been implicated in T1DM pathogenesis. Since dietary changes can reshape this complex gut community, its co-evolution could have been altered by changes to our diet, agriculture, personal hygiene, and antibiotic usage, which coincide with the increased incidence of T1DM. Recent studies demonstrate an association between altered gut microbiota and T1DM in both T1DM patients and animal models of the disease. Further studies should provide new insight into those critical host-microbial interactions, potentially suggesting new diagnostic or therapeutic strategies for disease prevention.


Microbiome Virome Enterotypes Type 1 diabetes Autoimmunity Autoimmune disease NOD mice Toll-like receptors Innate immune response Guts Germs Meals 


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Blizard Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and DentistryQueen Mary University of LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.Department of Internal MedicineYale University School of MedicineNew HavenUSA

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