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Current Diabetes Reports

, Volume 12, Issue 1, pp 16–23 | Cite as

The Placenta and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

  • M. Gauster
  • G. DesoyeEmail author
  • M. Tötsch
  • U. Hiden
Diabetes and Pregnancy (CJ Homko, Section Editor)

Abstract

By its location between maternal and fetal bloodstreams the human placenta not only handles the materno-fetal transport of nutrients and gases, but may also be exposed to intrauterine conditions adversely affecting placental and fetal development. Such adverse conditions exist in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and have been associated with alterations in placental anatomy and physiology. These alterations are mainly based on changes on the micro-anatomical and/or even molecular level including aberrant villous vascularization, a disbalance of vasoactive molecules, and enhanced oxidative stress. The consequence thereof may be impaired fetal oxygenation and changes in transplacental nutrient supply. Although transplacental glucose flux is flow limited and independent of glucose transporter availability, transport of essential and nonessential amino acids and expression of genes involved in lipid transport and metabolism are significantly affected by GDM.

Keywords

Placenta Gestational diabetes mellitus Pregnancy pathology Angiogenesis Placental vascularization Placenta development Placental blood flow Fetal oxygenation Oxidative stress Inflammation Transplacental nutrient supply 

Notes

Disclosure

No potential conflicts of interest relevant to this article were reported.

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Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Cell Biology, Histology and Embryology, Center for Molecular MedicineMedical University of GrazGrazAustria
  2. 2.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyMedical University of GrazGrazAustria
  3. 3.Cytological InstituteMedical University of GrazGrazAustria

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