Gene × Environment Interactions in Type 2 Diabetes
People vary genetically in their susceptibility to the effects of environmental risk factors for many diseases. Genetic variation also underlies the extent to which people respond appropriately to clinical therapies. Defining the basis to the interactions between the genome and the environment may help elucidate the biologic basis to diseases such as type 2 diabetes, as well as help target preventive therapies and treatments. This review examines 1) some of the most current evidence on gene × environment interactions in relation to type 2 diabetes; 2) outlines how the availability of information on gene × environment interactions might help improve the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes; and 3) discusses existing and emerging strategies that might enhance our ability to detect and exploit gene × environment interactions in complex disease traits.
KeywordsGene Environment interaction Type 2 diabetes
The author’s research is supported by grants from the Swedish Diabetes Association, Novo Nordisk, the Swedish Heart-Lung Foundation, the Swedish Research Council, the European Union, and the National Institutes of Health. The author thanks Dr. F. Renström for her careful critique of this manuscript prior to publication.
Conflicts of interest: P.W. Franks: has served on the boards for INSERM, LifeGene SAB, and the German National Cohort; has received honoraria from Novo Nordisk; and has received payment for multiple book chapters and review articles.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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