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Current Diabetes Reports

, 11:364 | Cite as

Alternative Transplantation Sites for Pancreatic Islet Grafts

  • Elisa Cantarelli
  • Lorenzo Piemonti
Article

Abstract

The liver is the current site of choice for pancreatic islet transplantation, even though it is far from being an ideal site because of immunologic, anatomic, and physiologic factors leading to a significant early graft loss. A huge amount of alternative sites have been used for islet transplantation in experimental animal models to provide improved engraftment and long-term survival minimizing surgical complications. The pancreas, gastric submucosa, genitourinary tract, muscle, omentum, bone marrow, kidney capsule, peritoneum, anterior eye chamber, testis, and thymus have been explored. Site-specific differences exist in term of islet engraftment, but few alternative sites have potential clinical translation and generally the evidence of a post-transplant islet function better than that reached after intraportal infusion is still lacking. This review discusses site-specific benefits and drawbacks taking into account immunologic, metabolic, and technical aspects to identify the ideal microenvironment for islet function and survival.

Keywords

Islet transplantation Alternative site Intravascular sites Extravascular sites Immunoprivileged sites Microenvironment Engraftment Early challenges Late challenges Pancreatic islet graft 

Notes

Disclosure

No potential conflicts of interest relevant to this article were reported.

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.San Raffaele Diabetes Research Institute (HSR-DRI)San Raffaele Scientific InstituteMilanItaly
  2. 2.Beta Cell Biology Unit, Diabetes Research InstituteSan Raffaele Scientific InstituteMilanItaly

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