Current Diabetes Reports

, Volume 9, Issue 1, pp 1–3 | Cite as

Inhibition of the RAS and prevention of diabetes and CVD: Mechanistic insights and lessons learned from clinical trials



Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    McFarlane SI, Kumar A, Sowers JR: Mechanisms by which angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors prevent diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Am J Cardiol 2003, 91:30H–37H.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fox K, Ferrari R, Yusuf S, Borer JS: Should angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors be used to improve outcome in patients with coronary artery disease and “preserved” left ventricular function? Eur Heart J 2006, 27:2154–2157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Yusuf S, Sleight P, Pogue J, et al.: Effects of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, ramipril, on cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. The Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study Investigators. N Engl J Med 2000, 342:145–153.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fox KM: Efficacy of perindopril in reduction of cardiovascular events among patients with stable coronary artery disease: randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial (the EUROPA study). Lancet 2003, 362:782–788.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Indications for ACE inhibitors in the early treatment of acute myocardial infarction: systematic overview of individual data from 100,000 patients in randomized trials. ACE Inhibitor Myocardial Infarction Collaborative Group [no authors listed]. Circulation 1998, 97:2202–2212.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Garg R, Yusuf S: Overview of randomized trials of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors on mortality and morbidity in patients with heart failure. Collaborative Group on ACE Inhibitor Trials. JAMA 1995, 273:1450–1456.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lindholm LH, Ibsen H, Dahlof B, et al.: Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension study (LIFE): a randomised trial against atenolol. Lancet 2002, 359:1004–1010.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Yusuf S, Teo KK, Pogue J, et al.: Telmisartan, ramipril, or both in patients at high risk for vascular events. N Engl J Med 2008, 358:1547–1559.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Farag A, Karam J, Nicasio J, McFarlane SI: Prevention of type 2 diabetes: an update. Curr Diab Rep 2007, 7:200–207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hansson L, Lindholm LH, Niskanen L, et al.: Effect of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibition compared with conventional therapy on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertension: the Captopril Prevention Project (CAPPP) randomised trial. Lancet 1999, 353:611–616.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bosch J, Yusuf S, Gerstein HC, et al.: Effect of ramipril on the incidence of diabetes. N Engl J Med 2006, 355:1551–1562.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Califf RM, Boolell M, Haffner SM, et al.: Prevention of diabetes and cardiovascular disease in patients with impaired glucose tolerance: rationale and design of the Nateglinide And Valsartan in Impaired Glucose Tolerance Outcomes Research (NAVIGATOR) Trial. Am Heart J 2008, 156:623–632.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    McFarlane SI, Banerji M, Sowers JR: Insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001, 86:713–718.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kudoh A, Matsuki A: Effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors on glucose uptake. Hypertension 2000, 36:239–244.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Tikellis C, Wookey PJ, Candido R, et al.: Improved islet morphology after blockade of the renin-angiotensin system in the ZDF rat. Diabetes 2004, 53:989–997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Suzuki K, Nakagawa O, Aizawa Y: Improved early-phase insulin response after candesartan treatment in hypertensive patients with impaired glucose tolerance. Clin Exp Hypertens 2008, 30:309–314.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Yusuf S, Diener HC, Sacco RL, et al.: Telmisartan to prevent recurrent stroke and cardiovascular events. N Engl J Med 2008, 359:1225–1237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Current Medicine Group LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Endocrinology, Department of MedicineState University of New York-Downstate Medical Center and Kings County HospitalBrooklynUSA

Personalised recommendations