Current Diabetes Reports

, Volume 5, Issue 4, pp 282–288 | Cite as

Oxidative stress: Changes in pregnancy and with gestational diabetes mellitus

  • Xinhua Chen
  • Theresa O. Scholl


Pregnancy is susceptible to oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses can be altered in response to elevated levels of oxidative stress. Limited data in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) suggest that products of lipid peroxidation may be increased and antioxidant enzyme activities decreased, although the results have been inconsistent. As in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), glycemic levels in patients with GDM correlate with concentrations of lipid peroxides. The effects of supplementation with antioxidants or antioxidant-rich food in T2DM are controversial. Whether or not increased antioxidant intake can reduce the complications of GDM in both mother and fetus has not been explored.


Oxidative Stress Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Total Antioxidant Capacity Antioxidant Status Protein Carbonyl 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References and Recommended Reading

  1. 1.
    Casanueva E, Viteri FE: Iron and oxidative stress in pregnancy. J Nutr 2003, 133:1700S-1708S. A comprehensive review on oxidative stress in pregnancy, focusing on evidences of oxidative stress and defense mechanisms and its relation to iron in pregnancy.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Poston L, Raijmakers MTM: Trophoblast oxidative stress, antioxidants and pregnancy outcome: a review. Placenta 2004, 25(suppl A):S72-S78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dandona P, Thusu K, Cook S, et al.: Oxidative damage to DNA in diabetes mellitus. Lancet 1996, 347:444–445.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Davi G, Ciabattoni G, Consoli A, et al.: In vivo formation of 8-iso-prostaglandin F2_ and platelet activation in diabetes mellitus. Circulation 1999, 99:224–229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Coughlan MT, Permezel M, Georgiou HM, et al.: Repression of oxidant-induced nuclear factor-kappaB activity mediates placental cytokine responses in gestational diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004, 89:3585–3594.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wang JY, Sarker AH, Cooper PK, et al.: The single-strand DNA binding activity of human PC4 prevents mutagenesis and killing by oxidative DNA damage. Mol Cell Biol 2004, 24:6084–6093.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Coughlan MT, Vervaart PP, Permezel M, et al.: Altered placental oxidative stress status in gestational diabetes mellitus. Placenta 2004, 25:78–84. Shows the presence of oxidative stress and the induction of key antioxidant enzyme activity in the placenta from women with GDM.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Evans JL, Goldfine ID, Maddux BA, et al.: Are oxidative stress-activated signaling pathways mediators of insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction? Diabetes 2003, 52:1–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus [no authors listed]. Diabetes Care 2005, 28(suppl 1):S37-S42.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Xiang AH, Peters RK, Trigo E, et al.: Multiple metabolic defects during late pregnancy in women at high risk for type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 1999, 48:848–854.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Catalano PM, Huston L, Amini SB, et al.: Longitudinal changes in glucose metabolism during pregnancy in obese women with normal glucose tolerance and gestational diabetes mellitus. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1999, 180:903–916.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Homko C, Sivan E, Chen X, et al.: Insulin secretion during and after pregnancy in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001, 86:568–573.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Clark C, Qiu C, Amerman B, et al.: Gestational diabetes: should it be added to the syndrome of insulin resistance? Diabetes Care 1997, 20:867–871.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    VanderJagt DJ, Harrison JM, Ratliff DM, et al.: Oxidative stress indices in IDDM subjects with and without long-term diabetic complications. Clin Biochem 2001, 34:265–270.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Orhan H, Önderoglu L, Yücel A, et al.: Circulating biomarkers of oxidative stress in complicated pregnancies. Arch Gynecol Obstet 2003, 267:189–195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Morris JM, Gopaul NK, Endresen MJR, et al.: Circulating markers of oxidative stress are raised in normal pregnancy and pre-eclampsia. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1998, 105:1195–1199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    McKinney ET, Shouri R, Hunt S, et al.: Plasma, urinary, and salivary 8-epi-prostaglandin F2 _ levels in normotensive and pre-eclamptic pregnancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2000, 183:874–877.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    CollinsAR: Assays for oxidative stress and antioxidant status: applications to research into the biological effectiveness of polyphenols. Am J Clin Nutr 2005, 81(suppl):261S-267S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Shin CS, Moon BS, Park KS, et al.: Serum 8-hydroxy-guanine levels are increased in diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 2001, 24:733–737.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dizdaroglu M, Jaruga P, Rodriguez H: Measurement of 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine in DNA by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry: comparison with measurement by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nucleic Acids Res 2001, 29:E12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lappas M, Permezel M, Rice GE: Release of proinflammatory cytokines and 8-isoprostane from placenta, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle from normal pregnant women and women with gestational diabetes mellitus. J Clin Endrocinol Metab 2004, 89:5627–5633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Arikan S, Konukoglu D, Arikan C, et al.: Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in maternal and cord blood. Gynecol Obstet Invest 2001, 51:145–149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mihailovic M, Cvetkovic M, Ljubic A, et al.: Selenium and malondialdehyde content and glutathione peroxidase activity in maternal and umbilical cord blood and amniotic fluid. Biol Trace Elem Res 2000, 73:47–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Block G, Dietrich M, Norkus EP, et al.: Factors associated with oxidative stress in human populations. Am J Epidemiol 2002, 156:274–285.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Peuchant E, Brun JL, Rigalleau V, et al.: Oxidative and antioxidative status in pregnant women with either gestational or type 1 diabetes. Clin Biochem 2004, 37:293–298. Indicates that pregnant women with GDM or type 1 diabetes have increased maternal product of lipid peroxidation, which is positively correlated with glycemic level.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Konukoglu D, Kemerli GD, Sabuncu T, et al.: Protein carbonyl content in erythrocyte membranes in type 2 diabetic patients. Horm Metab Res 2002, 34:367–370.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Zachara BA, Wardak C, Didkowski W, et al.: Changes in blood selenium and glutathione concentrations and glutathione peroxidase activity in human pregnancy. Gynecol Obstet Invest 1993, 35:12–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Carone D, Loverro G, Greco P, et al.: Lipid peroxidation products and antioxidant enzymes in red blood cells during normal and diabetic pregnancy. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1993, 51:103–109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Loverro G, Greco P, Capuano F, et al.: Lipoperoxidation and antioxidant enzymes activity in pregnancy complicated with hypertension. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1996, 70:123–127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Toescu V, Nuttall SL, Martin U, et al.: Oxidative stress and normal pregnancy. Clin Endocrinol 2002, 57:609–613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Toescu V, Nuttall SL, Martin U, et al.: Changes in plasma lipids and markers of oxidative stress in normal pregnancy and pregnancies complicated by diabetes. Clin Sci 2004, 106:93–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Zhang C, Williams MA, Sorensen TK, et al.: Maternal plasma ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus. Epidemiology 2004, 15:597–604.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sobki SH, Al-Senaidy AM, Al-Shammari TA, et al.: Impact of gestational diabetes on lipid profiling and indices of oxidative stress in maternal and cord plasma. Saudi Med J 2004, 25:876–880.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Patrick TE, Hubel CA, Roberts JM: Evidence of increased oxidative stress, unexplained by lipid changes, is present in nulliparous black women from early gestation. Hypertens Pregnancy 2004, 23:91–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Rabini RA, Fumelli P, Galassi R, et al.: Increased susceptibility to lipid oxidation of low-density lipoproteins and erythrocyte membranes from diabetic patients. Metabolism 1994, 43:1470–1474.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Chen X, Scholl TO, Leskiw MJ, et al.: Association of glutathione peroxidase activity with insulin resistance and dietary fat intake during normal pregnancy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003, 88:5963–5968. Demonstrates an increase in glutathione peroxidase activity and insulin resistance in normal pregnancy and a positive relationship between the two.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kamath U, Rao G, Raghothama C, et al.: Erythrocyte indicators of oxidative stress in gestational diabetes. Acta Paediatr 1998, 87:676–679.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Silver HM, Seebeck MA, Carlson R: Comparison of total blood volume in normal, pre-eclamptic, and nonproteinuric gestational hypertensive pregnancy by simultaneous measurement of red blood cell and plasma volumes. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1998, 179:87–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Paolisso G, Giugliano D: Oxidative stress and insulin action: is there a relationship? Diabetologia 1996, 39:357–363.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ceriello A, dello Russo P, Amstad P, et al.: High glucose induces antioxidant enzymes in human endothelial cells in culture: evidence linking hyperglycemia and oxidative stress. Diabetes 1996, 45:471–477.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ceriello A, Bortolotti N, Crescentini A, et al.: Antioxidant defences are reduced during the oral glucose tolerance test in normal and non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects. Eur J Clin Invest 1998, 28:329–333.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Facchini FS, Humphreys MH, DoNascimento CA, et al.: Relation between insulin resistance and plasma concentrations of lipid hydroperoxides, carotenoids, and tocopherols. Am J Clin Nutr 2000, 72:776–779.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kinalski M, Sledziewski A, Telejko B, et al.: Lipid peroxidation, antioxidant defence and acid-base status in cord blood at birth: the influence of diabetes. Horm Metab Res 2001, 33:227–231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Chaudhari L, Tandon OP, Vaney N, et al.: Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in gestational diabetics. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2003, 47:441–446.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Montonen J, Knekt P, Järvinen R, et al.: Dietary antioxidant intake and risk of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004, 27:362–366.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Paolisso G, D’Amore A, Giugliano D, et al.: Pharmacologic doses of vitamin E improve insulin action in healthy subjects and non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Am J Clin Nutr 1993, 57:650–656.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Paolisso G, D’Amore A, Balbi V, et al.: Plasma vitamin C affects glucose homeostasis in healthy subjects and in non-insulindependent diabetics. Am J Physiol 1994, 266:E261-E268.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Dragsted LO, Pedersen A, Hermetter A, et al.: The 6-a-day study: effects of fruit and vegetables on markers of oxidative stress and antioxidative defense in healthy nonsmokers. Am J Clin Nutr 2004, 79:1060–1072.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Liu S, Ajani U, Chae C, et al.: Long-term beta-carotene supplementation and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. JAMA 1999, 282:1073–1075.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Fuller CJ, Chandalia M, Garg A, et al.: RRR-alpha-tocopheryl acetate supplementation at pharmacologic doses decreases low-density-lipoprotein oxidative susceptibility but not protein glycation in patients with diabetes mellitus. Am J Clin Nutr 1996, 63:753–759.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Current Science Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xinhua Chen
    • 1
  • Theresa O. Scholl
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Medicine Science Center and Dentistry of New Jersey-SOMStratfordUSA

Personalised recommendations