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Current Colorectal Cancer Reports

, Volume 15, Issue 6, pp 157–169 | Cite as

Local Therapy Options for Recurrent Rectal and Anal Cancer: Current Strategies and New Directions

  • Edward Christopher Dee
  • Christine E. Eyler
  • Nina N. Sanford
  • Jennifer Y. WoEmail author
Radiation Therapy and Radiation Therapy Innovations in Colorectal Cancer (PP Lee and AC Raldow, Section Editors)
  • 16 Downloads
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Radiation Therapy and Radiation Therapy Innovations in Colorectal Cancer

Abstract

Purpose of Review

Although uncommon, locally recurrent rectal cancer (LRRC) and locally recurrent anal cancer (LRAC) after definitive chemoradiation can confer high morbidity and mortality. Although surgery is critical for management, recent studies show promising results with other locally directed and/or systemic treatment approaches. Here we review the literature to examine recent advances in management of this patient population.

Recent Findings

For LRRC, studies demonstrate success with newer surgical approaches and redefine contraindications for surgery. The roles of brachytherapy, repeat external beam irradiation, and induction chemotherapy are under investigation. Advances in LRAC show that surgery remains a core element of treatment after primary chemoradiation failure. Recent reports of overall survival are promising.

Summary

Surgery remains the mainstay of treatment for LRRC and LRAC, and overall survival is improving. Benefits of newer surgical, radiotherapeutic, and other treatment approaches are being elucidated. These findings pave the way for further improvements in cancer-specific outcomes and quality of life.

Keywords

Locally recurrent rectal cancer Locally recurrent anal cancer Oncologic outcomes Rectal cancer Oncologic outcomes Intraoperative radiotherapy 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edward Christopher Dee
    • 1
  • Christine E. Eyler
    • 2
  • Nina N. Sanford
    • 3
  • Jennifer Y. Wo
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Radiation OncologyMassachusetts General HospitalBostonUSA
  3. 3.Department of Radiation OncologyUniversity of Texas SouthwesternDallasUSA

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