Pacing in Patients with Congenital Heart Disease: When Is It Helpful and When Is It Harmful?
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Purpose of Review
Pacing in pediatric and adult patients with congenital heart disease requires careful evaluation and thoughtful planning. Review of current guidelines with assessment of risk/benefit must be performed along with planning on a case-by-case basis in order to achieve maximal success and reduce risk in this specialized population of patients that is rapidly increasing in size.
Guidelines for pacing in pediatric and congenital heart disease patients span many years. Most recent consensus and summary guidelines address pacing in adult patients with or without congenital heart disease. Pediatric recommendations from prior documents must be included in current decision-making.
Pacing in pediatric and congenital heart disease patients is important therapy. Creation of an individualized plan of care with attention to risk/benefit decision-making regarding when and how to pace is critical in this population to maximize beneficial outcome.
KeywordsCongenital heart disease Pediatric ACHD Pacing Complete heart block Bradycardia
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
M. David Weiland and Salim F. Idriss declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Zebulon Spector reports personal fees from Janssen Research & Development.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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