Effectiveness of Changes in Diet Composition on Reducing the Incidence of Cardiovascular Disease
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Purpose of Review
To highlight dietary changes shown to be associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular events in epidemiological studies and that have been proven to be effective in preventing cardiovascular diseases in clinical trials
Since dietary changes always involve multiple variables, recent observational and intervention studies on dietary prevention of cardiovascular disease focus not only to the limitation of a single nutrient/food intake but also to the other dietary changes implemented to replace it.
The available evidence supports three major dietary strategies for cardiovascular disease prevention: (1) the replacement of saturated fat with unsaturated fat and/or fiber-rich carbohydrate foods; (2) the reduction of salt intake; (3) the implementation of dietary patterns resembling the traditional Mediterranean diet. This support derives not only from RCTs but also from the combination of large observational cohort studies and relatively short-term randomized trials on cardiovascular risk factors.
KeywordsDietary fats Dietary carbohydrates Sodium intake Mediterranean diet Cardiovascular disease Mortality
The expert linguistic revision of R. Scala is gratefully acknowledged.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Ilaria Calabrese and Gabriele Riccardi declare that they have no conflicts of interests in relation to the content of this article.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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