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Current Cardiology Reports

, 20:135 | Cite as

Short- and Long-term Mortality Risk After Acute Pulmonary Embolism

  • Rajesh Gupta
  • Dylan D. Fortman
  • Daniel R. Morgenstern
  • Christopher J. Cooper
Peripheral Vascular Disease (CJ Cooper and R Gupta, Section Editors)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Peripheral Vascular Disease

Abstract

Purpose of Review

Acute pulmonary embolism is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the USA and throughout the world. This review will summarize recent developments in short- and long-term mortality risk assessment after an acute pulmonary embolism.

Recent Findings

Recent guidelines have emphasized risk stratification of acute PE patients on the basis of blood pressure, right ventricular size, and biomarker status. Ongoing work is testing various acute treatment strategies for improvement of symptom burden, length of stay, quality of life, and possibly mortality risk reduction. Long-term outcomes among subjects with acute PE are less well studied. Long-term mortality largely correlates with baseline co-morbidity burden, although there may be an association between acute PE severity and long-term outcomes.

Summary

Acute PE risk stratification and treatment, as well as long-term follow-up of patients with acute PE, are rapidly developing areas and many promising innovations are underway.

Keywords

Pulmonary embolism Risk stratification Mortality Thrombolysis Submassive 

Abbreviations

PE

Pulmonary embolism

DVT

Deep venous thrombosis

VTE

Venous thromboembolism

sPESI

Simplified Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index

SBP

Systolic blood pressure

HR

Heart rate

RV

Right ventricle

LV

Left ventricle

ICOPER

International Cooperative Pulmonary Embolism Registry

ECMO

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

BNP

Brain natriuretic peptide

CTEPH

Thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

RVSP

Right ventricular systolic pressure

TAPSE

Tricuspid Annular Plane Systolic Excursion

ESC

European Society of Cardiology

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Rajesh Gupta, Dylan D. Fortman, and Daniel R. Morgenstern declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Christopher J. Cooper reports a patent pending.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rajesh Gupta
    • 1
  • Dylan D. Fortman
    • 2
  • Daniel R. Morgenstern
    • 2
  • Christopher J. Cooper
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular MedicineUniversity of Toledo Medical CenterToledoUSA
  2. 2.College of Medicine and Life SciencesUniversity of ToledoToledoUSA

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