Mitral Valve Disease: a Comprehensive Review
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Purpose of Review
This review aims to provide a comprehensive assessment of mitral valve disease, both mitral stenosis and mitral regurgitation, starting with an overview of the valve anatomy.
The advent of three-dimensional imaging has allowed a better representation of the valve anatomy. Rheumatic disease is still the number one cause of mitral stenosis worldwide and percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty remains the therapy of choice when indicated and in anatomically eligible patients. Mitral regurgitation (MR) is classified as primary (i.e., lesion in the mitral apparatus) or secondary (caused by left ventricular geometrical alterations). While surgery, preferably repair, is still the recommended therapy for severe primary MR, percutaneous approaches to repair and/or replace the mitral valve are being extensively investigated.
Mitral valve disease is common. A careful understanding of mitral valve anatomy and the disease processes that affect the valve are crucial for providing optimal patient care.
KeywordsMitral valve disease Mitral valve anatomy Mitral stenosis Mitral regurgitation
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Serge C. Harb and Brian P. Griffin declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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