State-of-the-Art: a Review of Cardiovascular Effects of Testosterone Replacement Therapy in Adult Males


Purpose of Review

According to an Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline published in June 2010, testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) should be administered only to men who are hypogonadal with documented low testosterone level on two morning measurements. This recommendation was based on previous studies that did not show an increased risk in cardiovascular events with TRT. In contrast, recent studies did show an increased risk which prompted the FDA to investigate further.

Recent Findings

Multiple studies suggested an increased risk in cardiovascular events among groups of men prescribed TRT.


There is recent evidence that TRT can be associated with higher cardiovascular risks, while these risks are still not well established, and more well-designed trials are needed. Physicians should always be cautious when prescribing TRT to their patients. Potential risks should be discussed with each patient, and TRT requires regular monitoring to help minimize side effects.

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Fig. 1


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Correspondence to Hari Kumar Dandapantula.

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Ahmed Elsherbiny, Matthew Tricomi, and Hari Kumar Dandapantula declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

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This article is part of the Topical Collection on Ischemic Heart Disease

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Elsherbiny, A., Tricomi, M., Bhatt, D. et al. State-of-the-Art: a Review of Cardiovascular Effects of Testosterone Replacement Therapy in Adult Males. Curr Cardiol Rep 19, 35 (2017).

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  • Testosterone
  • Hypogonadism
  • Sexual dysfunction
  • Erectile dysfunction
  • Atherosclerosis
  • Atherogenesis
  • Coronary artery disease
  • Myocardial infarction