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How Well Can We Control Dyslipidemias Through Lifestyle Modifications?

  • Gabriele RiccardiEmail author
  • Olga Vaccaro
  • Giuseppina Costabile
  • Angela A. Rivellese
Lipid Abnormalities and Cardiovascular Prevention (G De Backer, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Lipid Abnormalities and Cardiovascular Prevention

Abstract

The role for lifestyle modifications to correct dyslipidemia(s) is reviewed. Dietary composition is crucial. Replacing saturated fat with MUFA or n-6 PUFA lowers plasma low-density lipoproteins (LDL) cholesterol and ameliorates the LDL/HDL ratio. Replacing saturated fat with carbohydrates has diverging effects due to the heterogeneity of carbohydrate foods. Diets rich in refined carbohydrates increase fasting and postprandial triglycerides, whereas the consumption of fiber-rich, low GI foods lowers LDL cholesterol with no detrimental effects on triglycerides. The role of polyphenols is debated: available evidence suggests a lowering effect of polyphenol-rich foods on postprandial triglycerides. As for functional foods, health claims on a cholesterol lowering effect of psyllium, beta-glucans and phytosterols are accepted by regulatory agencies. The importance of alcohol intake, weight reduction, and physical activity is discussed. In conclusion, there is evidence that lifestyle affects plasma lipid. A multifactorial approach including multiple changes with additive effects is the best option. This may also ensure feasibility and durability. The traditional Mediterranean way of life can represent a useful model.

Keywords

Dyslipidemias LDL cholesterol Cardiovascular diseases prevention Lifestyle modifications Dietary fat Dietary carbohydrates 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Gabriele Riccardi, Olga Vaccaro, Giuseppina Costabile, and Angela A. Rivellese declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gabriele Riccardi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Olga Vaccaro
    • 1
  • Giuseppina Costabile
    • 1
  • Angela A. Rivellese
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Clinical Medicine and SurgeryFederico II UniversityNaplesItaly

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