Cardiovascular Effects of Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs
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Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) include aspirin, other traditional NSAIDs, and coxibs. Evidence obtained during the past 10 years has focused attention on the cardiovascular hazard associated with coxibs and some traditional NSAIDs. The large randomized trials of prolonged coxib treatment added importantly to information provided by epidemiological studies that had previously associated regular use of NSAIDs with increased blood pressure and enhanced risk of congestive heart failure, and identified an increased risk of myocardial infarction as a class effect of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors. The aim of this article is to review the cardiovascular effects of aspirin, other traditional NSAIDs, and coxibs, to discuss the mechanisms underlying these effects, and to provide a clinical perspective on the cardiovascular hazard associated with their use.
KeywordsAspirin Atherothrombosis Coxib Cyclooxygenase inhibitors Diclofenac Heart failure Ibuprofen Naproxen
Compliance with Ethics Standards
Conflict of Interest
Carlo Patrono declares that he is a member of the Scientific Advisory Board of the Aspirin Foundation and he has received consultant and speaker fees from AstraZeneca and Bayer and an institutional grant from Bayer AG for investigator-initiated research.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by the author.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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