Current Cardiology Reports

, 17:110 | Cite as

Risk Stratification for Primary Prevention of Coronary Artery Disease: Roles of C-Reactive Protein and Coronary Artery Calcium

  • Waqas T. Qureshi
  • Jamal S. Rana
  • Joseph Yeboah
  • Usama bin Nasir
  • Mouaz H. Al-Mallah
Lipid Abnormalities and Cardiovascular Prevention (G De Backer, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Lipid Abnormalities and Cardiovascular Prevention


Risk stratification of individuals at risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) plays an important role in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. In addition to risk scores derived from conventional cardiovascular risk factors, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and coronary artery calcium (CAC) have emerged as two of the widely accepted non traditional risk factors for atherosclerotic disease that have shown incremental prognostic value in predicting cardiovascular events. This review systematically assesses the role of hs-CRP and CAC in various studies and demonstrates meta-analyses of the incremental prognostic value of hs-CRP and CAC in identifying patients at risk of future CVD events. Compared with this, CAC showed better incremental prognostic value and might be a better indicator of ASCVD risk in asymptomatic adults.


Statin therapy Cholesterol treatment High sensitivity C reactive protein Coronary artery calcium Risk factors Epidemiology Review 


Compliance with Ethics Guidelines

Conflict of Interest

Waqas Qureshi, Jamal S. Rana, Joseph Yeboah, Usama bin Nasir, and Mouaz H. Al-Mallah declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Waqas T. Qureshi
    • 1
  • Jamal S. Rana
    • 2
    • 3
    • 5
  • Joseph Yeboah
    • 1
  • Usama bin Nasir
    • 1
  • Mouaz H. Al-Mallah
    • 4
    • 6
  1. 1.Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal MedicineWake Forest University School of MedicineWinston-SalemUSA
  2. 2.Division of CardiologyKaiser Permanente Northern CaliforniaOaklandUSA
  3. 3.Department of MedicineUniversity of California, San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA
  4. 4.Cardiac Imaging King Abdul-Aziz Cardiac CenterRiyadhKingdom of Saudi Arabia
  5. 5.Division of ResearchKaiser Permanente Northern CaliforniaOaklandUSA
  6. 6.King Abdullah International Medical research centerRiyadhKingdom of Saudi Arabia

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