ICD Programming to Reduce Shocks and Improve Outcomes

  • Valentina Kutyifa
  • Wojciech Zareba
  • Arthur J. Moss
Invasive Electrophysiology and Pacing (EK Heist, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Invasive Electrophysiology and Pacing


Despite the clinical benefit of implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), there is a high frequency of inappropriate ICD therapy associated with impaired quality of life, unwanted health care resource utilization, and adverse clinical outcome. Alternative strategies of ICD programming are needed to reduce the risk of inappropriate and “unnecessary” ICD therapies and to improve patient outcome. In this review, we provide an overview of the rate of inappropriate and appropriate ICD therapies in clinical trials and large registries as well as a review of current trials evaluating novel ICD programming to reduce inappropriate ICD therapy to avoid unnecessary ICD therapy. Based on recent studies including a large randomized trial, we recommend a simple programming approach involving high-rate device therapy beginning at 200 bpm with a 2.5 sec delay for it reduces inappropriate therapy, unnecessary therapy, and all-cause mortality in patients receiving ICD or CRT-D devices for primary prevention indications.


Implantable cardioverter defibrillator ICD programming Inappropriate therapy Appropriate therapy ICD shock Outcome 


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Valentina Kutyifa
    • 1
    • 2
  • Wojciech Zareba
    • 1
  • Arthur J. Moss
    • 1
  1. 1.Heart Research Follow-Up ProgramUniversity of Rochester Medical CenterRochesterUSA
  2. 2.Heart Research Follow-up Program, Cardiology DivisionUniversity of Rochester Medical CenterRochesterUSA

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