Current Cardiology Reports

, 16:453 | Cite as

Three-dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiography of Atrial Septal Defect Device Closure

  • David A. RobersonEmail author
  • Vivian Wei Cui
Echocardiography (RM Lang, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Echocardiography


Most secundum atrial septal defects (ASD) are amenable to device closure. Three- dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (3DTEE) can be used to obtain an en face view of the ASD and important surrounding structures which provides for analysis of the type, size, shape, orientation, number and position of orifices, ASD rims and important surrounding structures in a single live 3D echo view. Also, 3DTEE is ideal for monitoring the position and configuration of devices and delivery hardware using live real –time imaging techniques. In this chapter we will describe and illustrate the methods to obtain and optimize 3DTEE en face views of the ASD during device closure using 3D zoom, live 3D and 3D full volume plus iCrop modalities. The respective 3D TEE modalities, imaging protocols, advantages and limitations will be discussed. Because it is useful, accurate and fairly simple to use, we have adopted 3D TEE for routine clinical use during ASD device closure.


Atrial septal defect ASD device closure 3-D transesophageal echocardiography En face view 





secundum atrial septal defect




coronary sinus


deep transgastric echocardiography


Eustachian valve


high volume rate


inferior vena cava


left atrium


left touch panel


left pulmonary vein


left ventricle


left ventricular outflow tract


multiplanar reconstruction


right atrium


right pulmonary vein


right touch panel


right ventricle


septum primum


superior vena cava


transesophageal echocardiography


tricuspid valve


3D full volume


three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography


Compliance with Ethics Guidelines

Conflict of Interest

David A. Roberson has received payment from Philips Ultrasound for being a lecturer for training physicians and sonographers to do 3D echocardiography.

Vivian Wei Cui has received payment from Philips.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

Video 1

3D zoom TEE protocol for en face views of secundum ASD (WMV 5396 kb)

Video 2

Live 3D TEE protocol for en face views of secundum ASD (WMV 8.51 MB)

Video 3

3D full volume with iCrop protocol for TEE en face views of secundum ASD (WMV 6146 kb)


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Advocate Children’s Hospital Heart InstituteOak LawnUSA
  2. 2.Chicago Medical SchoolOak LawnUSA

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