Three-dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiography of Atrial Septal Defect Device Closure
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Most secundum atrial septal defects (ASD) are amenable to device closure. Three- dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (3DTEE) can be used to obtain an en face view of the ASD and important surrounding structures which provides for analysis of the type, size, shape, orientation, number and position of orifices, ASD rims and important surrounding structures in a single live 3D echo view. Also, 3DTEE is ideal for monitoring the position and configuration of devices and delivery hardware using live real –time imaging techniques. In this chapter we will describe and illustrate the methods to obtain and optimize 3DTEE en face views of the ASD during device closure using 3D zoom, live 3D and 3D full volume plus iCrop modalities. The respective 3D TEE modalities, imaging protocols, advantages and limitations will be discussed. Because it is useful, accurate and fairly simple to use, we have adopted 3D TEE for routine clinical use during ASD device closure.
KeywordsAtrial septal defect ASD device closure 3-D transesophageal echocardiography En face view
secundum atrial septal defect
deep transgastric echocardiography
high volume rate
inferior vena cava
left touch panel
left pulmonary vein
left ventricular outflow tract
right pulmonary vein
right touch panel
superior vena cava
3D full volume
three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography
Compliance with Ethics Guidelines
Conflict of Interest
David A. Roberson has received payment from Philips Ultrasound for being a lecturer for training physicians and sonographers to do 3D echocardiography.
Vivian Wei Cui has received payment from Philips.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
3D zoom TEE protocol for en face views of secundum ASD (WMV 5396 kb)
Live 3D TEE protocol for en face views of secundum ASD (WMV 8.51 MB)
3D full volume with iCrop protocol for TEE en face views of secundum ASD (WMV 6146 kb)
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