Current Cardiology Reports

, Volume 14, Issue 3, pp 299–307 | Cite as

The Timing of Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Implantation in Patients with Heart Failure

Congestive Heart Failure (J Lindenfeld, Section Editor)


Patients who survive a myocardial infarction (MI) are at increased risk of sudden death due to fatal ventricular arrhythmias. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) reduce mortality in appropriately selected patients with heart failure and left ventricular dysfunction, regardless of etiology. Post hoc analyses from landmark trials have evaluated the effect of time (both since MI and duration of nonischemic cardiomyopathy) before ICD implantation on the efficacy of ICD therapy. Time remains a clinically important variable in the decision of if and when to implant an ICD. Future trials should focus on invasive and/or noninvasive risk stratification of patients with ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathy for better identification of those who would benefit from early ICD implantation, and those in whom a watch and wait approach is appropriate.


Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator Heart failure Myocardial infarction Nonischemic cardiomyopathy Sudden cardiac death 

Clinical Trial Acronyms


Amiodarone Versus Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator


Coronary Artery Bypass Graft-Patch


Cardiomyopathy Trial


Defibrillators in Non-Ischemic Cardiomyopathy Treatment Evaluation


Defibrillator in Acute Myocardial Infarction Trial


Immediate Risk-Stratification Improves Survival


Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial-I


Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial-II


Multicenter Unsustained Tachycardia Trial


Risk Estimation Following Infarction Noninvasive Evaluation—ICD Efficacy


Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure


Valsartan in Acute Myocardial Infarction Trial


Vest Prevention of Early Sudden Death Trial



No potential conflicts of interest relevant to this article were reported.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Mazankowski Alberta Heart InstituteUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada

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