Current Cardiology Reports

, Volume 13, Issue 3, pp 242–249

Evaluation of Tricuspid Valve Morphology and Function by Transthoracic Three-Dimensional Echocardiography

  • Denisa Muraru
  • Luigi P. Badano
  • Cristiano Sarais
  • Elena Soldà
  • Sabino Iliceto


Tricuspid valve (TV) disease commonly occurs in combination with left-sided heart disease. Despite the growing enthusiasm for developing novel minimally invasive therapies for the mitral or aortic valve, the TV disease formerly received less attention and was frequently left untreated. Strong evidence has increased the awareness of the impact of severe TV regurgitation on patient survival, functional capacity, and surgical risk. Preoperative TV accurate description is challenging because, unlike left-sided valves, a complete visualization of tricuspid annulus and all three leaflets in one view is routinely impossible by two-dimensional transthoracic or transesophageal echocardiography. Three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) with its unrestricted imaging capabilities has sparked significant research interest for a better understanding and improved treatment of valvular heart disease. This review summarizes the current status of 3DE for the assessment of TV morphology and function, with its clinical applications and current limitations, as well as its potential implications for designing TV repair techniques.


Three-dimensional echocardiography Tricuspid valve Tricuspid valve disease Tricuspid regurgitation Tricuspid annulus Tricuspid valve repair Tricuspid stenosis Carcinoid disease Pacemaker Infective endocarditis 


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Denisa Muraru
    • 1
  • Luigi P. Badano
    • 1
  • Cristiano Sarais
    • 1
  • Elena Soldà
    • 1
  • Sabino Iliceto
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Cardiac, Thoracic and Vascular SciencesUniversity of PaduaPaduaItaly

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