Current Cardiology Reports

, Volume 12, Issue 6, pp 450–463

Have the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Perturbations in Cardiovascular Disease Been Exhausted?



The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays an important role in blood pressure control and volume homeostasis. Inappropriate activation of the RAAS has been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension and related cardiovascular disease. Several classes of agents that block RAAS signaling have been shown to be effective antihypertensives and to have cardioprotective and renoprotective properties. Because blockade of the RAAS is incomplete with any of the currently available monotherapies, combinations of these agents have been tested and shown to provide additional clinical benefit in patients with hypertension and various forms of cardiovascular and renal disease.


Renin-angiotensin system Hypertension Cardiovascular disease Nephropathy Heart failure 

Clinical Trial Acronyms


Aliskiren in Left Ventricular Hypertrophy


Aliskiren Observation of Heart Failure Treatment


Aliskiren Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Using Cardiovascular and Renal Disease Endpoints


Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial-Blood Pressure Lowering Arm


Aliskiren Study in Post-MI Patients to Reduce Remodeling


Aliskiren Trial to Minimize Outcomes in Patients with Heart Failure


Aliskiren in the Evaluation of Proteinuria in Diabetes


Candesartan and Lisinopril Microalbuminuria


Candesartan in Heart Failure: Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and Morbidity


Eplerenone Post-AMI Heart Failure Efficacy and Survival Study


Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation


Irbesartan Versus Placebo in Combination with Ramipril for Treatment of Albuminuria


Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and in Combination with Ramipril Global End Point Trial


Randomized Aldactone Evaluation Study


Randomized Evaluation of Strategies for Left Ventricular Dysfunction


Telmisartan Randomised Assessment Study in ACE Intolerant Subjects with Cardiovascular Disease


Valsartan Heart Failure Trial


Valsartan in Acute Myocardial Infarction


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sulaf J. Mansur
    • 4
  • Fadi G. Hage
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Suzanne Oparil
    • 5
  1. 1.BirminghamUSA
  2. 2.Division of Cardiovascular DiseasesUniversity of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA
  3. 3.Section of CardiologyBirmingham Veteran’s Administration Medical CenterBirminghamUSA
  4. 4.Jefferson Clinic PCBirminghamUSA
  5. 5.Division of Cardiovascular DiseasesUniversity of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA

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