Current Cardiology Reports

, Volume 8, Issue 6, pp 399–404 | Cite as

Hypertension in the developing world: A consequence of progress

  • K. Srinath ReddyEmail author
  • Nitish Naik
  • Dorairaj Prabhakaran


Hypertension is one of the leading causes of death and disability in developing countries. The increasing burden of hypertension in these countries has been attributed to several indicators of economic progress such as increased life expectancy, urbanization and its attendant lifestyle changes, and the overall epidemiologic transition these countries are experiencing currently. The public health response to this challenge must be to promote health among all sections of the populations of these countries, and a concerted effort to promote awareness about hypertension, its risk factors, and risk behaviors. The health policies of these countries need to be reoriented to include chronic diseases in their ambit. These efforts have the potential to reduce the emergence or lessen the toll of hypertension and its complication in many parts of the developing world.


Obstructive Sleep Apnea Rheumatic Heart Disease Overweight Woman Gross National Income Epidemiologic Transition 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References and Recommended Reading

  1. 1.
    Ezzati M, Vander Hoorn S, Rodgers A, et al., and the Comparative Risk Assessment Collaborating Group: Estimates of global and regional potential health gains from reducing multiple major risk factors. Lancet 2003, 362:271–280. Provides detailed insight of population attributable risk of various risk factors.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ezzati M, Lopez AD, Rodgers A, et al., and the Comparative Risk Assessment Collaborating Group: Selected major risk factors and global and regional burden of disease. Lancet 2002, 360:1347–1360.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Yusuf S, Hawken S, Ounpuu S, et al., on behalf of the INTERHEART Study Investigators: Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): case-control study. Lancet 2004, 364:937–952. Reports on role of various cardiovascular risk factors in various populations and their generalizability.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kearney PM, Whelton M, Reynolds K, et al.: Global burden of hypertension: analysis of worldwide data. Lancet 2005, 365:217–223. Detailed analysis with future projections on global burden of hypertension.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wang Z, Wu Y, Zhao L, et al., for the Cooperative Research Group of the study on trends of cardiovascular diseases in China and preventive strategy for the 21st century: Trends in prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in the middle-aged population of China, 1992-1998. Hypertens Res 2004, 27:703–709.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gupta R: Trends in hypertension epidemiology in India. J Hum Hypertens 2004, 18:73–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Reddy KS, Prabhakaran D, Chaturvedi V, et al.: Methods for establishing a surveillance system for cardiovascular diseases in Indian industrial populations. Bull World Health Organ 2006, 84:461- 469.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kearney PM, Whelton M, Reynolds K, Whelton PK, He J: Worldwide prevalence of hypertension: a systematic review. J Hypertens 2004, 22:11–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mackay J, Mensah GA: The Atlas of Heart Disease and Stroke. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2004.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Deepa R, Shanthirani CS, Pradeepa R, Mohan V: Is the rule of halves in hypertension still valid? Evidence from the Chennai Urban Population Study. J Assoc Physicians India 2003, 51:153–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Prabhakaran D, Shah P, Chaturvedi V, et al.: Cardiovascular risk factor prevalence among men in a large industry of northern India. Natl Med J India 2005, 18:59- 65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Omran AR: The epidemiologic transition: a theory of the epidemiology of population change. Milbank Mem Fund Q 1971, 49:509–538.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Olshansky SJ, Ault AB: The fourth stage of the epidemiologic transition: The age of delayed degenerative diseases. Milbank Mem Fund Q 1986, 64:355–391.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Reddy KS: Cardiovascular diseases in India. World Health Stat Q 1993, 46:101–107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Murray CJL, Lopez AD: Global comparative assessments in the health sector. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1994.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Reddy KS, Yusuf S: Emerging epidemic of cardiovascular disease in developing countries. Circulation 1998, 97:596–601.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    United Nations Population Division: World urbanization prospects: the 1999 revision. New York: United Nations Population Division; 2000.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Marmot MG, Adelstein AM, Bulusu L: Lessons from the study of immigrant mortality. Lancet 1984, 1:1455–1458.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Salmond CE, Prior IA, Wessen AF: Blood pressure patterns and migration: a 14-year cohort study of adult Tokelauans. Am J Epidemiol 1989, 130:37–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Marmot MG, Syme SL, Kagan A, et al.: Epidemiological studies of coronary heart disease and stroke in Japanese men living in Japan, Hawaii and California: prevalence of coronary and hypertensive heart disease and associated risk factors. Am J Epidemiol 1975, 102:514–525.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Poulter NR, Khaw KT, Sever PS: Higher blood pressures of urban migrants from an African low-blood pressure population are not due to selective migration. Am J Hypertens 1988, 1:143S -145S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bhatnagar D, Anand IS, Durrington PN, et al.: Coronary risk factors in people from the Indian subcontinent living in west London and their siblings in India. Lancet 1995, 345:405–409.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Patel JV, Vyas A, Cruickshank JK, et al.: Impact of migration on coronary heart disease risk factors: comparison of Gujaratis in Britain and their contemporaries in villages of origin in India. Atherosclerosis 2006, 185:297–306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Elford J, Phillips A, Thomson AG, Shaper AG: Migration and geographic variations in blood pressure in Britain. BMJ 1990, 300:291–295.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    He J, Klag MJ, Whelton PK, et al.: Migration, blood pressure pattern, and hypertension: the Yi Migrant Study. Am J Epidemiol 1991, 134:1085–1101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Taylor R, Bennett P, Uili R, et al.: Hypertension and indicators of coronary heart disease in Wallis Polynesians: an urban-rural comparison. Eur J Epidemiol 1987, 3:247–256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lyngdoh T, Kinra S, Ben Shlomo Y, et al.: Sib-recruitment for studying migration and its impact on obesity and diabetes. Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2006, 3:2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Popkin BM: Global nutrition dynamics: The world is shifting rapidly toward a diet linked with non-communicable diseases. Am J Clin Nutr 2006, 84:289–298. Recent review on global nutrition transition.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kim S, Popkin BM: Understanding the epidemiology of overweight and obesity-A real global public health concern. Int J Epidemiol 2006, 35:60–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    WHO Expert Consultation: Appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies. Lancet 2004, 363:157- 63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Van Itallie TB: Health implications of overweight and obesity in the United States. Ann Intern Med 1985, 103:983–988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Janssen I, Katzmarzyk PT, Ross R: Waist circumference and not body mass index explains obesity-related health risk. Am J Clin Nutr 2004, 79:379–384.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Yao C, Wu W, Wu Y: The changing pattern of cardiovascular diseases in China. World Health Stat Q 1993, 46:113–118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Mendez MA, Monteiro CA, Popkin BM: Overweight exceeds underweight among women in most developing countries. Am J Clin Nutr 2005, 81:714–721.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ramachandran A, Snehalatha C, Vinitha R, et al.: Prevalence of overweight in urban Indian adolescent school children. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2002, 57:185–190.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kapil U, Singh P, Pathak P, et al.: Prevalence of obesity amongst affluent adolescent school children in Delhi. Indian Pediatr 2002, 39:449–452.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Khadilkar VV, Khadilkar AV: Prevalence of obesity in affluent school boys in pune. Indian Pediatr 2004, 41:857–858.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    WHO Global InfoBase Team: The SuRF Report 2. Surveillance of Chronic Disease Risk Factors: Country Level Data and Comparable Estimates. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2005.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Barker DJP: Fetal and Infant Origins of Adult Disease. London: BMJ Publishing Group; 1992.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Barker DJP, Bull AR, Osmond C, Simmonds SJ: Fetal and placental size and risk of hypertension in adult life. Br Med J 1990, 301:259–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Current Science Inc 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Srinath Reddy
    • 1
    Email author
  • Nitish Naik
  • Dorairaj Prabhakaran
  1. 1.Department of CardiologyAll India Institute of Medical SciencesNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations