Fueled by dissatisfaction with pharmacologic strategies to treat atrial fbrillation (AF), the results of basic and clinical investigation into the understanding of AF initiation and maintenance mechanisms, and the explosive development in catheter-based technologies, AF ablation has matured from a purely investigational technique to a preferred, safe, and effective approach for curing AF, particularly with the circumferential approach. Future insights and developments will help us refine our treatment strategies in patients with permanent AF, making chronic AF ablation safer, faster, and more effective. As the prevalence of AF in the general population continues to increase, the purpose of optimizing our strategy becomes evermore important and more pressing.
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