Current Cardiology Reports

, Volume 5, Issue 3, pp 193–199

Sex differences in the causes and natural history of heart failure

  • Bobbi L. Hoppe
  • Denise D. Hermann


Heart failure is a clinical syndrome of increasing prevalence in the United States, with significant morbidity and mortality. Although men have a higher annual mortality rate, more women than men die from heart failure each year. Optimal disease management is critical in limiting the impact of heart failure on life quality, quantity, and health care expenditures. Women have a unique risk-factor profile and different clinical manifestations of heart failure than men. Understanding inherent sex differences in heart failure epidemiology, pathophysiology, and natural history is imperative in determining whether the optimal therapy for this prevalent and important syndrome is affected by sex.


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Copyright information

© Current Science Inc 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bobbi L. Hoppe
    • 1
  • Denise D. Hermann
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Cardiology, UCSD Heart Failure and Cardiac Transplantation ProgramUniversity of California at San Diego Medical CenterSan DiegoUSA

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