Genetics, the environment, and lipid abnormalities
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Plasma lipid levels have been identified as major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Multiple behavioral and environmental factors are known to modulate their concentrations in the general population; however, there is dramatic individual variability in the association between risk factors and disease, as well as in the individual response to therapeutic intervention. These differences may be due to the interaction between genetic and nongenetic factors that are ultimately responsible for the individual disease risk and response to intervention. Great strides have been made to characterize the genes involved in the homeostasis of plasma lipoprotein levels and to identify polymorphisms that could contribute to an earlier and more precise individual risk assessment. Especially relevant has been the recent interest and progress on examining the interaction between a number of candidate genes and nongenetic factors, namely smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, and sex. The APOE locus continues to be the most thoroughly studied gene in this regard; however, other genes (ie, LPL, APOC3, ADH3) are showing promising results.
KeywordsPlasma Lipid APOE Genotype Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol APOE Gene Plasma Lipid Level
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References and Recommended Reading
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