Effects and Complications of Intravesical Instillation of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin Therapy
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Purpose of Review
This review will address the current literature available regarding complications after intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) therapy for bladder cancer. Topics include intravesical BCG therapy–related complications, role of BCG therapy in immunosuppression, and future directions in the context of BCG-related complications.
There are several new reviews and case reports discussing unique complications following intravesical BCG therapy that should raise awareness of possible short-term and long-term effects after using this common treatment modality in bladder cancer patients.
Since intravesical BCG is a common treatment option for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer and can cause a variety of complications, it is important to recognize this aspect of the patient’s history when evaluating patients who present with symptoms similar to the ones discussed in this review. This will allow for prompt delivery of treatment as well as preventing unnecessary morbidity and mortality.
KeywordsIntravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy BCG Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer Immunosuppression BCG complications
Acute kidney injury
Carcinoma in situ
Chronic kidney disease
Liver function tests
Lower urinary tract symptoms
Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance
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