Novel Approaches for HDL-Directed Therapies
Purpose of Review
High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are thought to exert a protective role against atherosclerosis. The measurement of the cholesterol mass within HDL (HDL-C) represents a good biomarker of cardiovascular health, but HDL-C appears to be a poor therapeutic target. Here, we discuss new targets for the development of HDL-directed therapies.
Among cardio-protective functions of HDL particles, the ability of HDL to remove cholesterol from cells involved in the early stages of atherosclerosis is considered one of the most important functions. This process, termed “HDL biogenesis,” is initiated by the formation of highly specialized plasma membrane micro-domains by the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and the binding of apolipoproteins (apo) such as apoA-I, the major protein moiety of HDL, to the micro-domains. Although early strategies aimed at increasing HDL biogenesis by upregulating ABCA1 or apoA-I gene expression have not met with clinical success, recent advances in understanding transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and post-translational regulatory pathways propose new targets for the promotion of HDL biogenesis. We have recently reported that a novel apoA-I-binding protein desmocollin 1 (DSC1) prevents HDL biogenesis and that inhibition of apoA-I-DSC1 interactions promotes HDL biogenesis by stabilizing ABCA1. This new HDL regulation pathway nominates DSC1 as an attractive pharmacological target.
In the absence of clinically useful therapy to increase HDL biogenesis, finding novel targets to unlock the therapeutic potential of HDL is highly desired. Modulation of apoA-I-DSC1 interactions may be a viable strategy.
KeywordsAtherosclerosis High-density lipoprotein Apolipoprotein A-I Cholesterol Desmocollin 1 ABCA1
This work was supported by a grant from the Canadian institutes of Health Research (CIHR MOP 15042 JG).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Jacques Genest and Hong Y. Choi declare no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
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