Pharmacologic Approaches to Weight Management: Recent Gains and Shortfalls in Combating Obesity
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Obesity is a growing epidemic in the USA with over one third of adults presently classified as obese. Obesity-related comorbidities include many leading causes of preventable death such as heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and certain types of cancer. Modest weight loss of 5–10 % of body weight is sufficient to produce clinically relevant improvements in cardiovascular disease risk factors among patients with overweight and obesity. Until recently, there were limited pharmacologic options approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat obesity. Phentermine/topiramate ER and lorcaserin were approved in 2012, and naltrexone SR/bupropion SR and liraglutide 3.0 mg were approved in 2014. This article reviews recent literature in the field of Obesity Medicine and highlights important findings from clinical trials. Future directions in the pharmacologic management of obesity are presented along with new diabetes medications that promote weight loss and reduce cardiovascular mortality.
KeywordsObesity Weight loss Weight management Pharmacotherapy Clinical trials Type 2 diabetes
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Katherine H. Saunders and Leon I. Igel declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Rekha B. Kumar declares personal fees for being a speaker for Jansen Pharmaceuticals and is a shareholder in Zafgen and Myos Corporation.
Louis J. Aronne declares consultant/advisory board work with Jamieson Labs, Pfizer Inc, Novo Nordisk A/S, Eisai, VIVUS, GI Dynamics, JOVIA Health, and Gelesis. He is a shareholder of Zafgen, Gelesis, Myos Corporation, and Jamieson Labs, and he is on the Board of Directors of MYOS Corporation and Jamieson Labs. He has received research funding from Aspire Bariatrics and Eisai.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
All studies by Louis J. Aronne involving animal and/or human subjects were performed after approval by the appropriate institutional review boards. When required, written, informed consent was obtained from all participants.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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