An Update on Gender Disparities in Coronary Heart Disease Care

  • Tina ShahEmail author
  • Nicolas Palaskas
  • Ameera Ahmed
Coronary Heart Disease (S. Virani and S. Naderi, Section Editors)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Coronary Heart Disease


Coronary heart disease (CHD), traditionally considered a male disease, causes far more deaths in women than cancer. The prevalence of CHD is lower in women at any age, but with advancing age, this differential decreases. The clinical outcomes including myocardial infarction mortality, all-cause mortality, and reinfarction rates are also worse in women with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) than in men. Yet, women appear to be underdiagnosed and undertreated for coronary heart disease. There is still a gap in the knowledge, understanding, and general awareness of CHD in women. This review provides updates in gender disparities in the management of risk factors, treatments, and outcomes of coronary heart disease.


Gender Differences Disparities Coronary heart disease Women 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Tina Shah, Nicolas Palaskas, and Ameera Ahmed declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center, Baylor College of MedicineHoustonUSA
  2. 2.Baylor College of MedicineHoustonUSA

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