Racial and ethnic differences in hypertension
- 237 Downloads
Hypertension is a major cause of disease burden in all racial and ethnic groups and in both developing and developed regions and countries. Much of the racial and ethnic disparity in cardiovascular outcomes can be attributed to the excess burden of hypertension. Racial and ethnic differences in blood pressure occur because of biology and sociology. Causes of racial differences in blood pressure likely begin early in life and reflect the complex relationship of these gene and environment interactions. Hypertension treatment and control remain less than optimal worldwide, and awareness is still a problem in many racial and ethnic groups. Instituting lifestyle changes for the primary prevention and treatment of hypertension among the general population would decrease prevalence and be effective in eliminating many racial and ethnic differences. This review highlights racial and ethnic differences in the prevalence and incidence of hypertension and identifies contributing factors associated with these differences.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
References and Recommended Reading
- 3.National Center for Health Statistics: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Available at: http://www. cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes.htm. Accessed September 1, 2007.
- 5.American Heart Association: Heart disease and stroke statistics — 2007 update. Dallas, TX: American Heart Association; 2007.Google Scholar
- 13.Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Prevalence, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension-United States, 1999–2002. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2005, 54:7–9.Google Scholar
- 15.Douglas JG, Bakris GL, Epstein M, et al.; for the Hypertension in African Americans Working Group of the International Society of Hypertension in Blacks: Management of high blood pressure in African Americans: consensus statement of the Hypertension in African Americans Working Group of the International Society of Hypertension in Blacks. Arch Intern Med 2003, 163:525–541.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 30.Stevens VJ, Obarzanek E, Cook N, et al.: Longterm weight loss and changes in blood pressure: results of the Trials of Hypertension Prevention, phase II. Ann Inter Med 2001, 134:1–11.Google Scholar
- 37.The ALLHAT Officers and coordinators for the ALLHAT collaborative Research Group: Major outcomes in high-risk hypertensive patients randomized to angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor or calcium channel blocker vs diuretic: the antihypertensive and lipid-lowering treatment to prevent heart attack trial (ALLHAT). JAMA 2002, 288:2981–2997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 38.Hypertension-related mortality among Hispanic subpopulations-United States, 1995–2002. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2006, 55:177–180.Google Scholar