Advertisement

Current Atherosclerosis Reports

, Volume 3, Issue 6, pp 437–445 | Cite as

Mediterranean diets and cardiovascular disease

  • Thomas A. Barringer
Article

Abstract

Coronary heart disease remains the leading cause of death in the Western world. Among these countries, however, there is a marked discrepancy in the prevalence of heart disease in spite of similar traditional risk factor profiles. This is undoubtedly due to differences in lifestyle, the most important of which are diet and exercise. Both epidemiologic data and clinical trials suggest that the beneficial impact of specific dietary and lifestyle changes on cardiac event rates could be greater than that achieved by any of the drug or revascularization trials to date.

Keywords

Coronary Heart Disease Dietary Pattern Salen Mediterranean Diet Nutrition Committee 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References and Recommended Reading

  1. 1.
    Willett WC, Sacks F, Tricopoulou A, et al.: Mediterranean diet pyramid: a cultural model for healthy eating. Am J Clin Nutr 1995, 61(suppl):1402S-1406S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Keys A: Coronary heart disease in seven countries. Circulation 1970; 41(suppl 1):1–211.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Verschuren WM, Jacobs DR, Bloemberg PM, et al.: Serum total cholesterol and long-term coronary heart disease mortality in different cultures. JAMA 1995, 274(suppl):131–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kromhout D, Keys A, Aravanis C, et al.: Food consumption patterns in the 1960s in seven countries. Am J Clin Nutr 1989, 49:889–894.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Nestle M: Mediterranean diets: historical and research overview. Am J Clin Nutr 1995, 61(suppl):1313S-1320S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ferro-Luzzi A, Branca F: Mediterranean diet, Italian-style: prototype of a healthy diet. Am J Clin Nutr 1995, 61(suppl):1338S-1345S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Helsing E: Traditional diets and disease patterns of the Mediterranean, circa 1960. Am J Clin Nutr 1995, 61(suppl):1329S-1337S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Trichopoulou A, Kouris-Blazos A, Wahlqvist ML, et al.: Diet and overall survival in elderly people. BMJ 1995, 311:1457–1460.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kafatos A, Kouroumalis I, Vlachonikolis I, et al.: Coronary-heart-disease risk-factor status of the Cretan urban population in the 1980s. Am J Clin Nutr 1991, 54:591–598.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    International Conference on the Diets of the Mediterranean. January 1993. Cambridge, MA. Am J Clin Nutr 1995, 61(suppl):1321S–1427S.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    2000 Consensus Statement: Dietary fat, the Mediterranean diet, and lifelong good health. 2000 International Conference on the Mediterranean Diet. Royal College of Physicians: London, England. January 13–14, 2000.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kushi LH, Lenart EB, Willett WC: Health implications of Mediterranean diets in light of contemporary knowledge. 1. Plant foods and dairy products. Am J Clin Nutr 1995, 61(suppl):1407S-1415S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kushi LH, Lenart EB, Willett WC: Health implications of Mediterranean diets in light of contemporary knowledge. 2. Meat, wine, fats, and oils. Am J Clin Nutr 1995, 61(suppl):1416S-1427S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Willett WC: Diet and health. What should we eat? Science 1994, 264:532–537.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Willett WC. Nutritional Epidemiology. New York: Oxford University Press; 1998.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    AHA Dietary Guidelines, Revision 2000: A statement for healthcare professionals from the Nutrition Committee of the American Heart Association. Circulation 2000, 102:2296–2311.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Renaud S: Linoleic acid, platelet aggregation and myocardial infarction. Atherosclerosis 1990, 80:255–256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sandker GN, Kromhout D, Aravanis C, et al.: Serum cholesteryl ester fatty acids and their relation with serum lipids in elderly men in Crete and The Netherlands. Eur J Clin Nutr 1993, 47:201–208.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kris-Etherton PM, for the Nutrition Committee. AHA Science Advisory: Monounsaturated fatty acids and risk of cardiovascular disease. Circulation 1999, 100:1253–1258.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lichtenstein AH, for the Nutrition Committee. AHA Science Advisory: Trans fatty acids, plasma lipid levels, and the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Circulation 1997, 95:2588–2590.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kris-Etherton P, Daniels SR, Eckel RH, et al.: Summary of the scientific conference on dietary fatty acids and cardiovascular health. Conference summary from the Nutrition Committee of the AHA. Circulation 2001, 103:1034–1039.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    de Lorgeril M, Renaud S, Mamele N, et al.: Mediterranean alpha-linolenic acid-rich diet in secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. Lancet 1994, 343:454–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    de Lorgeril M, Salen P, Martin JL, et al.: Mediterranean diet, traditional risk factors, and the rate of cardiovascular complications after myocardial infarction: final report of the Lyon Diet Heart Study. Circulation 1999, 99:779–785.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Renaud S, de Lorgeril M, Delaye J, et al.: Cretan Mediterranean diet for the prevention of coronary heart disease. Am J Clin Nutr 1995, 61(suppl):1360S-1367S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kagawa Y, Nishizawa M, Suzuki M, et al.: Eicosapolyenoic acids of serum lipids of Japanese Islanders with low incidence of cardiovascular diseases. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 1982, 28:441–453.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Budowski P, Crawford MA. |→-linolenic acid as a regulator of the metabolism of arachidonic acid: implications of the ratio, n-6:n-3 fatty acids. Proc Nutr Soc 1985, 44:221–229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    de Lorgeril M, Salen P, Martin JL, et al.: Effect of a Mediterranean type of diet on the rate of cardiovascular complications in patients with coronary artery disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 1996, 28:1103–1108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    de Lorgeril M, Salen P: Modified Cretan Mediterranean diet in the prevention of coronary heart disease and cancer. In Mediterranean Diets. Edited by Simopoulos AP, Visioli F. Basel, Switzerland: Karger; 2000, World Rev Nutr Diet series, vol 87:1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Jacobs DR, Meyer KA, Kushi LH, Folsom AR: Whole-grain intake may reduce the risk of ischemic heart disease death in postmenopausal women: the Iowa Women’s Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr 1998, 248–257.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Liu S, Stampfer MJ, Hu FB, et al.: Whole-grain consumption and risk of coronary heart disease: results from the Nurses’ Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr 1999, 70:412–419.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Pietinen P, Rimm EB, Korhonen P, et al.: Intake of dietary fiber and risk of coronary heart disease in a cohort of Finnish men: The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study. Circulation 1996, 94:2720–2727.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wolk A, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, et al.: Long-term intake of dietary fiber and decreased risk of coronary heart disease among women. JAMA 1999, 281:1998–2004.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Fraser GE, Sabate J, Beeson WL, Strahan TM: A possible protective effect of nut consumption on risk of coronary heart disease: the Adventist Health Study. Arch Intern Med 1992, 152:1416–1424.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, et al.: Frequent nut consumption and risk of coronary heart disease in women: prospective cohort study. BMJ 1998, 317:1341–1345.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ness AR, Powles JW: Fruit and vegetables, and cardiovascular disease: a review. Int J Epidemiol 1997, 26:1–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Joshipura KJ, Hu FB, Manson JE, et al.: The effect of fruit and vegetable intake on risk of coronary heart disease. Ann Intern Med 2001, 134:1106–1114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Robinson K, Arheart K, Refsum H, et al.: Low circulating folate and vitamin B6 concentrations: risk factors for stroke, peripheral vascular disease, and coronary heart disease. Circulation 1998, 97:437–443.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hertog MG, Kromhout D, Aravanis C, et al.: Flavonoid intake and long-term risk of coronary heart disease and cancer in the seven countries study. Arch Intern Med 1995, 155:381–386.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Knekt P, Jarvinen R, Reunanen A, Maatela J: Flavonoid intake and coronary mortality in Finland: a cohort study. BMJ 1996, 312:478–481.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, et al.: Dietary intake of a-linolenic acid and risk of fatal ischemic heart disease among women. Am J Clin Nutr 1999, 69:890–897.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ascherio A, Rimm EB, Giovannucci EL, et al.: Dietary fat and risk of coronary heart disease in men: cohort follow up study in the United States. BMJ 1996, 313:84–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    O’Keefe JH, Harris WS: From Inuit to implementation: omega-3 fatty acids come of age. Mayo Clin Proc 2000, 75:607–614.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Burr ML, Fehily AM, Gilbert JF, et al.: Effects of changes in fat, fish and fibre intakes on death and myocardial reinfarction: diet and reinfarction trial (DART). Lancet 1989, ii:757–761.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    GISSI-Prevenzione Investigators (Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravivenza nel’Infarto miocardico). Dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E after myocardial infarction: results of the GISSI-Prevenzione trial. Lancet 1999, 354:447–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Granger CB: Diet and secondary prevention of coronary disease: Is it time to stop chewing the fat? J Am Coll Cardiol 1996, 28:1109–1110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Leaf A: Dietary prevention of coronary heart disease. The Lyon Diet Heart Study. [editorial]. Circulation 1999, 99:733–735.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kris-Etherton P, Eckel RH, Howard BV, et al.: Lyon Diet Heart Study: benefits of a Mediterranean-style, National Cholesterol Education Program/American Heart Association Step I dietary pattern on cardiovascular disease. Circulation 2001, 103:1823–1825.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Robertson RM, Smaha L: Can a Mediterranean-style diet reduce heart disease? Circulation 2001, 103:1821–1822.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Barringer TA: Dietary fats in the prevention of coronary heart disease: the need for more clinical trials. Eur Heart J 2001, 3(suppl D):D79-D84.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Vogel RA, Corretti MC, Plotnick GD: The postprandial effects of components of the Mediterranean diet on endothelial function. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000, 35:288A.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Boskou D: Olive oil. In Mediterranean Diets. Edited by Simopoulos AP, Visioli F. Basel, Switzerland: Karger; 2000. World Rev Nutr Diet series; vol 87:24–31.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Rudel LL, Parks JS, Sawyer JK: Compared with dietary monounsaturated and saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat protects African green monkeys from coronary artery atherosclerosis. Arterioscler Thromb 1995, 15:2101–2110.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    POS Pilot Plant Corporation. Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. June, 1994.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Plotnick GD, Corretti MC, Vogel RA: Effect of antioxidant vitamins on the transient impairment of endothelium-dependent brachial artery vasoactivity following a single high-fat meal. JAMA 1997, 278:1682–1686.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Current Science Inc 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas A. Barringer
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Family MedicineCarolinas Medical CenterCharlotteUSA

Personalised recommendations